Glioblastoma Multiforme

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    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a fast-growing type of central nervous system tumor that forms from supportive tissue of the brain and spinal cord and has cells that look very different from normal cells. Learn about glioblastoma multiforme and find information on how we support and care for children and teens with GBM before, during, and after treatment.

The Brain Tumor Center at Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center cares for children with many different types of common and rare brain and spinal tumors, including astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, ependymoma, glioblastomas, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET).

Your child will receive care from some of the world’s most experienced pediatric brain tumor doctors and internationally recognized pediatric subspecialists.

Our team works closely together to develop a care plan that offers your child the highest possible quality of life after treatment, and takes the needs of your child and your family into account.

Children treated at the Brain Tumor Center have access to some of the most advanced diagnostics and therapies, including:

  • Quick and accurate diagnosis from our dedicated pediatric neuropathologist
  • Access to advanced technologies like the intraoperative MRI, which allows our neurosurgeons to see detailed images of the brain during surgery
  • Advanced pediatric radiation oncology services, including targeted radiosurgery and low-dose radiation therapy that minimize exposure to radiation
  • Outpatient and oral chemotherapy, which may minimize the number of times your child will need to visit the hospital
  • Innovative therapies offered through clinical trials at Dana-Farber, Boston Children's Hospital, and nationally
  • Specialized programs for the treatment of low- and high-grade gliomas, and medulloblastoma

Thanks to refined surgical techniques and improved chemotherapy and radiation therapy, the majority of children with brain and spinal cord tumors are now long-term survivors. However, they may face physical, social, and intellectual challenges that require specialized care.

Learn more about our Brain Tumor Center.

Information for: Patients | Healthcare Professionals

Glioblastoma Multiforme and Anaplastic Astrocytoma

Overview

Having a tumor in the brain is always a very serious matter, and glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma are no different. Tumors are masses of abnormal cells that grow out of control. When these tumors originate in the brain, they can be very complicated to treat because of the delicate surrounding tissue.

  • A high-grade glioma is a malignant tumor that arises from the brain’s supportive tissue (glial cells). There are two high-grade gliomas: glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and anaplastic astrocytomas (AA).
  • GBM and AA come from a type of glial cell called an astrocyte.
  • An astrocytoma is a type of glioma, and sometimes they are referred to as gliomas.
  • These tumors can occur with increased frequency in families with certain genetic diseases, including neurofibromatosis type I (also called NF1), Li-Fraumeni syndrome, hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer and tuberous sclerosis.
  • GBM and AA are aggressive tumors that rapidly infiltrate adjacent brain tissue and, as a result, they are difficult to treat.

As you read on, you’ll find detailed information about glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma.

How Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center approaches glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma

Your child will be seen through Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, an integrated pediatric oncology program through Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Boston Children's Hospital that provides—in one specialized program — all the services of both a leading cancer center and a pediatric hospital.

Most children diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme or anaplastic astrocytoma receive surgery and radiation, and in some cases chemotherapy. Our pediatric neuro-oncology and pediatric neurosurgical specialists at Dana-Farber/Boston Children's offer:

  • technological advances, such as the intra-operative MRI, which allow our pediatric neurosurgeons to "see" the tumor as they operate with MRI scans
  • treatment with the best standard of care, including neurosurgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy
  • access to unique Phase I clinical trials, from our own investigators, Children’s Oncology Group, the Pediatric Oncology Experimental Therapeutics Consortium and the Department of Defense Neurofibromatosis Clinical Trial Consortium

In-depth

We understand how overwhelming a diagnosis of a brain tumor can be. Right now, you probably have a lot of questions. How dangerous is this condition? What is the very best treatment? What do we do next?

We’ve tried to provide some answers to these questions here, and our experts can explain your child’s condition fully when you meet with us.

What is glioblastoma multiforme or anaplastic astrocytoma?

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and anaplastic astrocytomas (AA) are types of brain tumors — masses of tissue that develop from abnormally growing cells. GBM and AA arise from a certain kind of brain cell known as a glial cell - for this reason, they may also be known as "gliomas."

The specific kind of glial cell that they come from is called as an astrocyte, and this is why they can also be called "astrocytomas."  Both GBM and AA are malignant tumors, meaning that they grow and metastasize, or spread. GBM tend to be more aggressive than AA.

What’s the difference between glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytomas?

When doctors diagnose a brain tumor, they “stage” it, or give it a grade, according to whether it has spread, and if so, how far. This helps us determine treatment options and prognosis. The World Health Organization classification scheme includes four grades of glioma:

  • Glioblastoma multiforme is a grade IV tumor. This means that they are aggressive tumors that spread to adjacent healthy brain tissue.
  • Anaplastic astrocytoma is a grade III tumor. While anaplastic astrocytomas grow less rapidly than glioblastoma multiforme, they are equally malignant.
Where does glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma occur?

Glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma can occur in different parts of the brain. Depending on the size and location of the tumor, children may experience different symptoms. 

  • About 65 percent of these tumors arise in the cerebral hemispheres, which control many higher functions such as speech, movement, thought and sensation.
  • About 20 percent can occur in the area of the thalamus and hypothalamus or the diencephalon, which is responsible for identification of sensation, such as temperature, pain and touch, regulation of appetite/weight and body temperature, and also connects the brainstem to the cortex).
  • Another 15 percent can occur in the region of the cerebellum and brain stem known as the posterior fossa (at the base of the brain). These area coordinate balance and motor function.

The median age at diagnosis is when a child is 9 or 10 years old, and these tumors occur with equal frequency in boys and girls.

As you read further below, you’ll find information about glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma.

What causes a glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma?

As a parent, you undoubtedly want to know what may have caused your child’s tumor. Unfortunately, doctors don’t have a lot of answers to this question, since high-grade gliomas occur without an identifiable cause in most patients. There’s nothing that you could have done or avoided doing that would have prevented the tumor from developing.

We do know that these tumors can occur with increased frequency in families with certain hereditary conditions, including:

  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome
  • hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer
  • tuberous sclerosis
  • neurofibromatosis Type 1
What are the symptoms of a glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma?

Each child may experience symptoms differently and they vary greatly depending on the size and location of the tumor and whether it has spread.

Glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma can cause symptoms that result from increased pressure within the head, as well as other symptoms related to the tumor’s specific location, rate of growth and associated inflammation.

Symptoms can develop slowly over time or begin very suddenly. The following are the most common:

  • headache and lethargy (generally upon awakening in the morning)
  • seizures, depending on tumor type and location
  • compression of surrounding brain structures. Depending on the location, this can cause:
    • weakness and other motor dysfunction
    • hormonal abnormalities
    • changes in behavior or thought processes
     
How are glioblastoma multiformes and anaplastic astrocytoma classified?

An important part of diagnosing a brain tumor involves staging and classifying the disease, which will help your child’s doctor determine treatment options. Staging is the process of determining whether the cancer has spread and, if so, how far.

Gliomas are composed of different parts and are classified according to their most aggressive appearing elements. The World Health Organization classification scheme includes four grades of glioma.

  • Glioblastoma multiforme is a grade IV tumor.
  • Glioblastoma multiformes are aggressive tumors that spread to adjacent healthy brain tissue.
  • Anaplastic astrocytoma is a grade III tumor.
  • Anaplastic astrocytomas, while less rapidly growing than glioblastoma multiforme, are equally malignant.

Your child’s doctor can provide additional information on the classification of glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma tumors.

Questions to ask your child’s doctor

After your child is diagnosed with a brain tumor, you may feel overwhelmed with information. It can be easy to lose track of the questions that occur to you.

Lots of parents find it helpful to jot down questions as they arise – that way, when you talk to your child’s doctors, you can be sure that all of your concerns are addressed.  
 
If your child is old enough, you may want to suggest that she write down what she wants to ask her health care provider, too.

Some of the questions you may want to ask include:

  • What type of brain tumor does my child have?
  • Where in the brain is the tumor located? How might this affect my child?
  • Has my child’s brain tumor spread?
  • Can the tumor be treated with surgery?
  • How long will my child need to be in the hospital?
  • What are the possible short and long-term complications of treatment? How will they be addressed?
  • What is the likelihood of cure?
  • What services are available to help my child and my family cope?

FAQ

Q: What is the expected outcome after treatment?

A: Unfortunately, the prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma tumors remains poor. In general, more complete removal of tumors results in a greater chance of survival. Your child’s physician will discuss treatment options with you, including experimental clinical trials and supportive care.

Q: Where will my child be treated?

A: Children treated through Dana-Farber/Boston Children's receive outpatient care at the Jimmy Fund Clinic on the third floor of Dana Farber Cancer Institute. If your child needs to be admitted to the hospital, she will stay at Boston Children's Hospital on the ninth floor of the Berthiaume building.

Q: What services are available to help my child and my family cope?

A: We offer many services to help you, your child and your family get through this difficult time.

Q: What kind of supportive or palliative care is available for my child?

A: When necessary, our Pediatric Advanced Care Team (PACT) is available to provide supportive treatments intended to optimize the quality of life and promote healing and comfort for children with life-threatening illness. In addition, PACT can provide psychosocial support and help arrange end-of-life care when necessary.

Tests

The first step in treating your child is forming an accurate and complete diagnosis.

Your child’s physician may order a number of different tests to determine the type and location of the tumor. Diagnostic procedures for a glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma are used to determine the exact type of tumor and whether the tumor has spread.

In addition to a physical exam, a medical history and neurological exam (a test of your child’s reflexes, muscle strength, eye and mouth movement, coordination and alertness), diagnostic procedures for glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma may include:

  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) — to produce detailed images of the brain and spine
  • magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) — which is a test done along with MRI at specialized facilities that can detect the presence of particular organic compounds produced by the body's metabolism within sample tissue. This helps us identify tissue as either normal or tumor, and may be able to distinguish between different types of tumors.
  • computerized tomography scan (also called a CT or CAT scan) — to capture a detailed view of the body, and particularly helpful in examining bones and cerebral spinal fluid.
  • biopsy or tissue sample — from the tumor to provide definitive information about the type of tumor. This is collected during surgery.
  • lumbar puncture (spinal tap) — to remove a small sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and determine if any tumor cells have started to spread into this fluid.

After we complete all necessary tests, our experts meet to review and discuss what they have learned about your child's condition. Then we will meet with you and your family to discuss the results and outline the best treatment options.

Treatment and care

We know how difficult a diagnosis of a pediatric brain tumor can be, both for your child and for your whole family. That’s why our physicians are focused on family-centered care: From your first visit, you’ll work with a team of professionals who are committed to supporting all of your family’s physical and psychosocial needs. We’ll work with you to create a care plan that’s best for your child.

There are a number of treatments we may recommend. Some of them help to treat the tumor while others are intended to address complications of the disease or side effects of the treatment.

The primary treatment for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma includes maximal surgical removal, when possible, followed by radiation therapy. To date, no chemotherapy regimen has been demonstrated to increase survival rates in children with pediatric high-grade gliomas.

As with all pediatric cancers, we recommend that care be delivered at specialized centers like our. Here, multidisciplinary teams can provide expert diagnostics and treatment by experienced medical, surgical and radiation oncologists. Also, they can make sure your child has psychosocial support, neuro-psychological testing and specialized school plans.

Treatment may include (alone or in combination):

Surgery

The first treatment is usually surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible. Our pediatric neurosurgeons are experienced at using advanced techniques, such as intraoperative MRI, to maximize removal of the tumor.

  • Surgery has multiple roles in the management of glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma, including treatment of increased intracranial pressure, biopsy and tumor removal.
  • Tumor specimens are examined by our pediatric neuropathologists to determine the exact diagnosis.
  • Complete resection or surgical removal of the entire tumor is ideal when possible.
    • Most high-grade gliomas cannot be completely removed because they tend to infiltrate into adjacent healthy tissues.
    • Tumors of the cerebral hemispheres are generally easier to remove than those along the midline of the brain.
     
  • A biopsy of the removed tissue is conducted for diagnostic purposes.
  • In general, the more completely the tumor can be removed, the greater the chances for survival.

The infiltrating nature of these tumors makes removal difficult. Technological advances such as the intra-operative MRI, where surgeons can visualize the tumor as they operate with MRI scans, can enhance efforts at resection for difficult tumors and thereby improve survival.

Radiation therapy

Your child may also receive precisely targeted and dosed radiation in order to kill cancer cells left behind after surgery. This is important to control the local growth of tumor, and it helps increase survival in high-grade gliomas.

  • Radiosurgery to deliver additional radiation to residual tumor masses is also being used in specific cases.
  • Other techniques to increase radiation dose have been unable to enhance survival over conventional radiotherapy.
Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy refers to drugs that interferes with the cancer cell’s ability to grow or reproduce. For glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma, chemotherapy before surgery may help shrink the tumor, making it possible to remove.

  • Different groups of chemotherapy drugs work in different ways to fight cancer cells and shrink tumors.
  • Often, we use a combination of chemotherapy drugs.
  • We may give certain chemotherapy drugs in a specific order.

A variety of chemotherapy regimens have been tested in the treatment of newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas.

  • While studies in adults have suggested that certain drugs can produce modest responses in high-grade gliomas, this effect has been less pronounced for pediatric patients.
  • Several regimens have produced responses, but none has improved survival.
  • Increased doses of chemotherapy along with autologous stem cell transplant have also not produced notable advantage.
  • New biologic and immunotherapy-based treatments for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma are now being tested to try and improve the effectiveness of therapy.

Chemotherapy drugs do not differentiate normal healthy cells from cancer cells. Because of this, there can be many adverse side effects during treatment. Being able to anticipate these side effects can help the care team, parents, and child prepare, and, in some cases, prevent these symptoms from occurring, if possible.

Chemotherapy is systemic treatment, meaning it is introduced to the bloodstream and travels throughout the body to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be given:

  • orally, as a pill to swallow
  • intramuscularly, as an injection into the muscle or fat tissue
  • intravenously, directly to the bloodstream
  • intrathecally, directly into the spinal fluid with a needle
How are side effects managed?

Side effects in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma can arise from surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.

  • Procedures should be performed in specialized centers where experienced neurosurgeons, working in the most technologically advanced settings, can provide the most extensive resections while preserving normal brain tissue.
     
  • Radiation therapy often produces inflammation, which can temporarily exacerbate symptoms and dysfunction. To control this, inflammation steroids are sometimes necessary.
     
  • Some of the chemotherapy agents are associated with fatigue, diarrhea, constipation and headache. These side effects can be effectively managed under most circumstances with standard medical approaches.

Many specialized brain tumor treatment centers have now specialists who deliver complementary or alternative medicines. These treatments, which may help control pain and side effects of therapy include the following.

  • acupuncture/acupressure
  • therapeutic touch
  • massage
  • herbs
  • dietary recommendations

Talk to your child’s physician about whether complementary or alternative medicine might be a viable option.

What is the expected outcome after treatment for glioblastoma multiforme or anaplastic astrocytoma?

Unfortunately, the prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma tumors remains very poor. In general, more complete removal of tumors, when possible, results in a greater chance of survival. Your child’s physician will discuss treatment options with you, including experimental clinical trials, and supportive care.

What about progressive or recurrent disease?

For children with relapsed high-grade gliomas, we offer access to the latest clinical trials and experimental therapies. Current trials include novel medications as well as new methods for the delivery of more traditional agents. Talk to your child’s physician for more information about clinical trials and experimental treatments.

Resources and support

We understand that you may have a lot of questions if your child is diagnosed with a glioblastoma multiforme or an anaplastic astrocytoma. Will it affect my child long-term? What do we do next? We’ve tried to provide some answers to those questions in these pages, but there are also a number of resources and support services to help you and your family through this difficult time.

Innovation and research clinical innovations

The pediatric neurosurgeons at Dana-Farber/Boston Children's have access to the most recent technological advances such as the intra-operative MRI, which allow them to visualize the tumor as they operate with MRI scans, so they can remove as much of the tumor as possible.

Our team also has access to high-tech imaging, such as PET, CT and functional MRI, which enables us to understand exactly where the tumor tissue is, and to map out surgeries and treatments that minimize risk to healthy brain tissue.

For children experiencing seizures, our pediatric neurologists expertly read electroencephalograms (EEGs) to determine the source of seizure activity. They work closely with neurosurgeons to ensure that healthy tissue responsible for everyday functions, such as speech and movement, are minimally damaged during surgery.

What is the latest research on malignant gliomas, including glioblastoma multiforme?

Clinical and basic scientists at Dana-Farber/Boston Children's are conducting numerous research studies to help clinicians better understand and treat malignant gliomas.

We belong to the Pediatric Oncology Therapeutic Experimental Investigators Consortium (POETIC), a collaborative clinical research group offering experimental therapies to patients with newly diagnosed, relapsed or refractory disease. It is also the New England Phase I Center of the Children’s Oncology Group and the Department of Defense Neurofibromatosis Clinical Trial Consortium.

Through these consortiums, a number of novel therapies are available for children with both newly diagnosed and current brain tumors. Two new protocols include:

  • A Phase II trial of radiation therapy, cetuximab and irinotecan for children with newly diagnosed malignant glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.
  • A second trial for newly diagnosed malignant gliomas is a Phase I gene immuno-therapy trial combined with radiation therapy and temozolomide. This combination is toxic to malignant glioma cells and thus stops their growth. More importantly, it can induce an immune response to malignant cells located outside of the tumor's primary site, thus targeting the infiltrative boundary of the tumor that typically results in recurrence.

General Information

The PDQ childhood brain tumor treatment summaries are organized primarily according to the World Health Organization classification of nervous system tumors.[1][2] For a full description of the classification of nervous system tumors and a link to the corresponding treatment summary for each type of brain tumor, refer to the PDQ summary on Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview.

Dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer. Between 1975 and 2002, childhood cancer mortality has decreased by more than 50%.[3] Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors require close follow-up because cancer therapy side effects may persist or develop months or years after treatment. Refer to the PDQ summary on Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer for specific information about the incidence, type, and monitoring of late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors.

Primary brain tumors are a diverse group of diseases that together constitute the most common solid tumor of childhood. Brain tumors are classified according to histology, but tumor location and extent of spread are important factors that affect treatment and prognosis. Immunohistochemical analysis, cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings, and measures of mitotic activity are increasingly used in tumor diagnosis and classification.

Clinicopathologic Classification of Childhood Astrocytomas and Other Tumors of Glial Origin

The pathologic classification of pediatric brain tumors is a specialized area that is undergoing evolution; review of the diagnostic tissue by a neuropathologist who has particular expertise in this area is strongly recommended.

Childhood astrocytomas and other tumors of glial origin are classified according to clinicopathologic and histologic subtype and are histologically graded from grade I to IV according to the World Health Organization’s (WHO) histologic typing of central nervous system (CNS) tumors.[1] Tumor types are based on the glial cell type of origin: astrocytomas (astrocytes), oligodendroglial tumors (oligodendrocytes), mixed gliomas (cell types of origin include oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and ependymal cells) and neuronal tumors (with or without an astrocytic component).

WHO histologic grades are commonly referred to as low-grade gliomas or high-grade gliomas (see Table 1).

Table 1. World Health Organization (WHO) Histologic Grade and Corresponding Classification for Tumors of the Central Nervous System

WHO Histologic Grade

Grade Classification

I

Low grade

II

Low grade

III

High grade

IV

High grade

In 2007, the WHO further categorized astrocytomas, oligodendroglial tumors, and mixed gliomas according to histopathologic features and biologic behavior. It was determined that the pilomyxoid variant of pilocytic astrocytoma may be a more aggressive variant and may be more likely to disseminate, and it was reclassified by the WHO as a grade II tumor (see Table 2).[1][2][4]

Table 2. Histologic Grade of Childhood Astrocytomas and Other Tumors of Glial Origin

Type

WHO Histologic Grade

Astrocytic Tumors:  

 

Pilocytic astrocytoma

I

Pilomyxoid astrocytoma

II

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

II

Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma

I

Diffuse astrocytoma:  

 

Gemistocytic astrocytoma

II

Protoplasmic astrocytoma

II

Fibrillary astrocytoma

II

Anaplastic astrocytoma

III

Glioblastoma

IV

Oligodendroglial Tumors:  

 

Oligodendroglioma

II

Anaplastic oligodendroglioma

III

Mixed Gliomas:  

 

Oligoastrocytoma

II

Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma

III

Childhood astrocytomas and other tumors of glial origin can occur anywhere in the CNS, although each tumor type tends to have preferential CNS locations (see Table 3).

Table 3. Childhood Astrocytomas and Other Tumors of Glial Origin and Preferential Central Nervous System (CNS) Location

Tumor Type

Preferential CNS location

Pilocytic astrocytoma

Optic nerve, optic chiasm/hypothalamus, thalamus and basal ganglia, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord (rare)

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

Superficial location in cerebrum (temporal lobe preferentially)

Diffuse astrocytoma (including fibrillary)

Cerebrum (frontal and temporal lobes), brain stem, spinal cord, optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic pathway, hypothalamus, and thalamus

Anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma

Cerebrum; occasionally cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord

Oligodendrogliomas

Cerebrum (frontal lobe preferentially followed by temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes), cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord

Oligoastrocytoma

Cerebral hemispheres (frontal lobe preferentially followed by the temporal lobe)

Gliomatosis cerebri

Cerebrum with or without brain stem involvement, cerebellum, and spinal cord

More than 80% of astrocytomas located in the cerebellum are low-grade (pilocytic grade I) and often cystic; most of the remainder are diffuse grade II astrocytomas. Malignant astrocytomas in the cerebellum are rare.[1][2] The presence of certain histologic features has been used retrospectively to predict event-free survival for pilocytic astrocytomas arising in the cerebellum or other location.[5][6][7]

Astrocytomas arising in the brain stem may be either high-grade or low-grade, with the frequency of either type being highly dependent on the location of the tumor within the brain stem.[8][9] Tumors not involving the pons are overwhelmingly low-grade gliomas (e.g., tectal gliomas of the midbrain), whereas tumors located exclusively in the pons without exophytic components are largely high-grade gliomas (e.g., diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas).[8][9]

Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have an increased propensity to develop WHO grade I and II astrocytomas in the visual pathway; approximately 20% of all patients with NF1 will develop a visual pathway glioma. In these patients, the tumor may be found on screening evaluations when the child is asymptomatic or has apparent static neurologic and/or visual deficits. Pathologic confirmation is frequently not obtained in asymptomatic patients, and when biopsies have been performed, these tumors have been found to be predominantly pilocytic (grade I) rather than fibrillary (grade II) astrocytomas.[2][4][10][11][12] In general, treatment is not required for incidental tumors found with surveillance scans. Symptomatic lesions or those that have radiographically progressed may require treatment.[13]

Genomic alterations involving BRAF are very common in sporadic cases of pilocytic astrocytoma, resulting in activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway. BRAF activation in pilocytic astrocytoma occurs most commonly through a gene fusion between KIAA1549 and BRAF, producing a fusion protein that lacks the BRAF regulatory domain.[14][15][16][17][18] This fusion is seen in the majority of infratentorial and midline pilocytic astrocytomas, but is present at lower frequency in supratentorial (hemispheric) tumors.[14][15][19][20][21][22][23] Other genomic alterations in pilocytic astrocytomas that can also activate the ERK/MAPK pathway (e.g., alternative BRAF gene fusions, RAF1 rearrangements, RAS mutations, and BRAF V600E point mutations) are less commonly observed.[15][17][18][24] As expected, given the role of NF1 deficiency in activating the ERK/MAPK pathway, activating BRAF genomic alterations are uncommon in pilocytic astrocytoma associated with NF1.[21] Presence of the BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion predicted for better clinical outcome (progression-free survival [PFS] and overall survival) in one report that described children with incompletely resected low-grade gliomas.[23] However, other factors such as p16 deletion and tumor location may modify the impact of BRAF mutation on outcome.[25]BRAF activation through the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion has also been described in other pediatric low-grade gliomas (e.g., pilomyxoid astrocytoma).[22][23]BRAF point mutations (V600E) are observed in nonpilocytic pediatric low-grade gliomas as well, including approximately two-thirds of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma cases and in ganglioglioma and desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma.[26][27][28]

Molecular features of pediatric high-grade astrocytomas show some similarities to the genetic aberrations seen in adult glioblastomas that arise from pre-existing lower-grade gliomas (so-called secondary glioblastoma).[29][30][31] These include a high incidence of TP53 mutations, a low incidence of PTEN and P16INK4A mutations, and the presence of PDGF/PDGFR overexpression. However, the IDH1 mutations that have been identified in a high proportion of adults with secondary glioblastoma are rarely seen in pediatric glioblastoma.[32][33] While the incidence of IDH1 mutations is low in children, it increases with age in the adolescent and young adult population.[32] Mutations in histone H3.3 (H3F3A) are present in approximately one-third of non–brain stem pediatric high-grade astrocytomas,[33][34] and most of these cases also have TP53 mutations.[33] Pediatric high-grade astrocytomas with H3F3A mutations often additionally have somatic mutations in ATRX, a gene coding for a protein involved in chromatin remodeling.[33] Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas show an even higher frequency of H3F3A mutations than do non–brain stem pediatric high-grade astrocytomas, with approximately three-fourths of cases showing mutations.[34][35] Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas show a comparably high frequency of TP53 mutations, but IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are rare.[35] These findings suggest that a substantial proportion of pediatric high-grade astrocytomas are associated with processes required for establishing normal chromatin architecture.

The molecular profile of pediatric patients with oligodendroglioma does not demonstrate deletions of 1p or 19q, as found in 40% to 80% of adult cases. Pediatric oligodendroglioma harbors MGMT gene promoter methylation in the majority of tumors.[36]

Gliomatosis cerebri is a diffuse glioma that involves widespread involvement of the cerebral hemispheres in which it may be confined, but it often extends caudally to affect the brain stem, cerebellum, and/or spinal cord.[1] It rarely arises in the cerebellum and spreads rostrally.[37] The neoplastic cells are most commonly astrocytes, but in some cases, they are oligodendroglia. They may respond to treatment initially, but overall have a poor prognosis.[38]

Prognosis

Low-grade astrocytomas

Low-grade astrocytomas (grade I [pilocytic] and grade II) have a relatively favorable prognosis, particularly for circumscribed, grade I lesions where complete excision may be possible.[39][40][41][42][43][44] Tumor spread, when it occurs, is usually by contiguous extension; dissemination to other CNS sites is uncommon, but does occur.[45][46] Although metastasis is uncommon, tumors may be of multifocal origin, especially when associated with NF1.

Unfavorable prognostic features include young age, fibrillary histology, and inability to obtain a complete resection.[47] Elevated MIB-1 labeling index, a marker of cellular proliferative activity, is associated with shortened PFS in patients with pilocytic astrocytoma.[7] A BRAF-KIAA fusion, found in pilocytic tumors, confers a better clinical outcome.[23]

Oligodendrogliomas are rare in children and have a relatively favorable prognosis, with the exception of children younger than 3 years who have less than a gross total resection.[48]

High-grade astrocytomas

High-grade astrocytomas are often locally invasive and extensive and tend to occur above the tentorium.[39][42] Spread via the subarachnoid space may occur. Metastasis outside of the CNS has been reported but is extremely infrequent until multiple local relapses have occurred. Biologic markers, such as p53 overexpression and mutation status, may be useful predictors of outcome in patients with high-grade gliomas.[4][49][50] MIB-1 labeling index is predictive of outcome in childhood malignant brain tumors. Both histologic classification and proliferative activity evaluation have been shown to be independently associated with survival.[51] Although high-grade astrocytoma carries a generally poor prognosis in younger patients, those with anaplastic astrocytoma and those in whom a gross total resection is possible may fare better.[43][52][53]

Disease Presentation

Presenting symptoms for childhood astrocytomas depend not only on CNS location, but also size of tumor, rate of growth, and chronologic and developmental age of the child.

References:

  1. Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, et al., eds.: WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. 4th ed. Lyon, France: IARC Press, 2007.

  2. Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, et al.: The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Acta Neuropathol 114 (2): 97-109, 2007.

  3. Smith MA, Seibel NL, Altekruse SF, et al.: Outcomes for children and adolescents with cancer: challenges for the twenty-first century. J Clin Oncol 28 (15): 2625-34, 2010.

  4. Komotar RJ, Burger PC, Carson BS, et al.: Pilocytic and pilomyxoid hypothalamic/chiasmatic astrocytomas. Neurosurgery 54 (1): 72-9; discussion 79-80, 2004.

  5. Tibbetts KM, Emnett RJ, Gao F, et al.: Histopathologic predictors of pilocytic astrocytoma event-free survival. Acta Neuropathol 117 (6): 657-65, 2009.

  6. Rodriguez FJ, Scheithauer BW, Burger PC, et al.: Anaplasia in pilocytic astrocytoma predicts aggressive behavior. Am J Surg Pathol 34 (2): 147-60, 2010.

  7. Margraf LR, Gargan L, Butt Y, et al.: Proliferative and metabolic markers in incompletely excised pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas--an assessment of 3 new variables in predicting clinical outcome. Neuro Oncol 13 (7): 767-74, 2011.

  8. Fried I, Hawkins C, Scheinemann K, et al.: Favorable outcome with conservative treatment for children with low grade brainstem tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer 58 (4): 556-60, 2012.

  9. Fisher PG, Breiter SN, Carson BS, et al.: A clinicopathologic reappraisal of brain stem tumor classification. Identification of pilocystic astrocytoma and fibrillary astrocytoma as distinct entities. Cancer 89 (7): 1569-76, 2000.

  10. Listernick R, Darling C, Greenwald M, et al.: Optic pathway tumors in children: the effect of neurofibromatosis type 1 on clinical manifestations and natural history. J Pediatr 127 (5): 718-22, 1995.

  11. Rosai J, Sobin LH, eds.: Dysgenetic syndromes. In: Rosai J, Sobin LH, eds.: Atlas of Tumor Pathology. Third Series. Washington, DC : Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1994., pp 379-90.

  12. Allen JC: Initial management of children with hypothalamic and thalamic tumors and the modifying role of neurofibromatosis-1. Pediatr Neurosurg 32 (3): 154-62, 2000.

  13. Molloy PT, Bilaniuk LT, Vaughan SN, et al.: Brainstem tumors in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1: a distinct clinical entity. Neurology 45 (10): 1897-902, 1995.

  14. Bar EE, Lin A, Tihan T, et al.: Frequent gains at chromosome 7q34 involving BRAF in pilocytic astrocytoma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 67 (9): 878-87, 2008.

  15. Forshew T, Tatevossian RG, Lawson AR, et al.: Activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway: a signature genetic defect in posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas. J Pathol 218 (2): 172-81, 2009.

  16. Jones DT, Kocialkowski S, Liu L, et al.: Tandem duplication producing a novel oncogenic BRAF fusion gene defines the majority of pilocytic astrocytomas. Cancer Res 68 (21): 8673-7, 2008.

  17. Jones DT, Kocialkowski S, Liu L, et al.: Oncogenic RAF1 rearrangement and a novel BRAF mutation as alternatives to KIAA1549:BRAF fusion in activating the MAPK pathway in pilocytic astrocytoma. Oncogene 28 (20): 2119-23, 2009.

  18. Pfister S, Janzarik WG, Remke M, et al.: BRAF gene duplication constitutes a mechanism of MAPK pathway activation in low-grade astrocytomas. J Clin Invest 118 (5): 1739-49, 2008.

  19. Korshunov A, Meyer J, Capper D, et al.: Combined molecular analysis of BRAF and IDH1 distinguishes pilocytic astrocytoma from diffuse astrocytoma. Acta Neuropathol 118 (3): 401-5, 2009.

  20. Horbinski C, Hamilton RL, Nikiforov Y, et al.: Association of molecular alterations, including BRAF, with biology and outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas. Acta Neuropathol 119 (5): 641-9, 2010.

  21. Yu J, Deshmukh H, Gutmann RJ, et al.: Alterations of BRAF and HIPK2 loci predominate in sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma. Neurology 73 (19): 1526-31, 2009.

  22. Lin A, Rodriguez FJ, Karajannis MA, et al.: BRAF alterations in primary glial and glioneuronal neoplasms of the central nervous system with identification of 2 novel KIAA1549:BRAF fusion variants. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 71 (1): 66-72, 2012.

  23. Hawkins C, Walker E, Mohamed N, et al.: BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion predicts better clinical outcome in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma. Clin Cancer Res 17 (14): 4790-8, 2011.

  24. Janzarik WG, Kratz CP, Loges NT, et al.: Further evidence for a somatic KRAS mutation in a pilocytic astrocytoma. Neuropediatrics 38 (2): 61-3, 2007.

  25. Horbinski C, Nikiforova MN, Hagenkord JM, et al.: Interplay among BRAF, p16, p53, and MIB1 in pediatric low-grade gliomas. Neuro Oncol 14 (6): 777-89, 2012.

  26. Dougherty MJ, Santi M, Brose MS, et al.: Activating mutations in BRAF characterize a spectrum of pediatric low-grade gliomas. Neuro Oncol 12 (7): 621-30, 2010.

  27. Dias-Santagata D, Lam Q, Vernovsky K, et al.: BRAF V600E mutations are common in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PLoS One 6 (3): e17948, 2011.

  28. Schindler G, Capper D, Meyer J, et al.: Analysis of BRAF V600E mutation in 1,320 nervous system tumors reveals high mutation frequencies in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, ganglioglioma and extra-cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma. Acta Neuropathol 121 (3): 397-405, 2011.

  29. Paugh BS, Qu C, Jones C, et al.: Integrated molecular genetic profiling of pediatric high-grade gliomas reveals key differences with the adult disease. J Clin Oncol 28 (18): 3061-8, 2010.

  30. Bax DA, Mackay A, Little SE, et al.: A distinct spectrum of copy number aberrations in pediatric high-grade gliomas. Clin Cancer Res 16 (13): 3368-77, 2010.

  31. Ward SJ, Karakoula K, Phipps KP, et al.: Cytogenetic analysis of paediatric astrocytoma using comparative genomic hybridisation and fluorescence in-situ hybridisation. J Neurooncol 98 (3): 305-18, 2010.

  32. Pollack IF, Hamilton RL, Sobol RW, et al.: IDH1 mutations are common in malignant gliomas arising in adolescents: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Childs Nerv Syst 27 (1): 87-94, 2011.

  33. Schwartzentruber J, Korshunov A, Liu XY, et al.: Driver mutations in histone H3.3 and chromatin remodelling genes in paediatric glioblastoma. Nature 482 (7384): 226-31, 2012.

  34. Wu G, Broniscer A, McEachron TA, et al.: Somatic histone H3 alterations in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas and non-brainstem glioblastomas. Nat Genet 44 (3): 251-3, 2012.

  35. Khuong-Quang DA, Buczkowicz P, Rakopoulos P, et al.: K27M mutation in histone H3.3 defines clinically and biologically distinct subgroups of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Acta Neuropathol 124 (3): 439-47, 2012.

  36. Suri V, Jha P, Agarwal S, et al.: Molecular profile of oligodendrogliomas in young patients. Neuro Oncol 13 (10): 1099-106, 2011.

  37. Rorke-Adams LB, Portnoy H: Long-term survival of an infant with gliomatosis cerebelli. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2 (5): 346-50, 2008.

  38. Armstrong GT, Phillips PC, Rorke-Adams LB, et al.: Gliomatosis cerebri: 20 years of experience at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Cancer 107 (7): 1597-606, 2006.

  39. Pollack IF: Brain tumors in children. N Engl J Med 331 (22): 1500-7, 1994.

  40. Hoffman HJ, Berger MS, Becker LE: Cerebellar astrocytomas. In: Deutsch M, ed.: Management of Childhood Brain Tumors. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990, pp 441-56.

  41. Fisher PG, Tihan T, Goldthwaite PT, et al.: Outcome analysis of childhood low-grade astrocytomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer 51 (2): 245-50, 2008.

  42. Pfister S, Witt O: Pediatric gliomas. Recent Results Cancer Res 171: 67-81, 2009.

  43. Qaddoumi I, Sultan I, Gajjar A: Outcome and prognostic features in pediatric gliomas: a review of 6212 cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Cancer 115 (24): 5761-70, 2009.

  44. Wisoff JH, Sanford RA, Heier LA, et al.: Primary neurosurgery for pediatric low-grade gliomas: a prospective multi-institutional study from the Children's Oncology Group. Neurosurgery 68 (6): 1548-54; discussion 1554-5, 2011.

  45. Civitello LA, Packer RJ, Rorke LB, et al.: Leptomeningeal dissemination of low-grade gliomas in childhood. Neurology 38 (4): 562-6, 1988.

  46. von Hornstein S, Kortmann RD, Pietsch T, et al.: Impact of chemotherapy on disseminated low-grade glioma in children and adolescents: report from the HIT-LGG 1996 trial. Pediatr Blood Cancer 56 (7): 1046-54, 2011.

  47. Stokland T, Liu JF, Ironside JW, et al.: A multivariate analysis of factors determining tumor progression in childhood low-grade glioma: a population-based cohort study (CCLG CNS9702). Neuro Oncol 12 (12): 1257-68, 2010.

  48. Creach KM, Rubin JB, Leonard JR, et al.: Oligodendrogliomas in children. J Neurooncol 106 (2): 377-82, 2012.

  49. Pollack IF, Finkelstein SD, Woods J, et al.: Expression of p53 and prognosis in children with malignant gliomas. N Engl J Med 346 (6): 420-7, 2002.

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  52. Finlay JL, Boyett JM, Yates AJ, et al.: Randomized phase III trial in childhood high-grade astrocytoma comparing vincristine, lomustine, and prednisone with the eight-drugs-in-1-day regimen. Childrens Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 13 (1): 112-23, 1995.

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Stage Information

There is no generally recognized staging system for childhood astrocytomas. For the purposes of this summary, childhood astrocytomas will be described as low-grade astrocytoma (pilocytic astrocytomas and diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas) or high-grade astrocytoma (anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastoma) and as untreated or recurrent.

Treatment Option Overview

Many of the improvements in survival in childhood cancer have been made as a result of clinical trials that have attempted to improve on the best available, accepted therapy. Clinical trials in pediatrics are designed to compare new therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. This comparison may be done in a randomized study of two treatment arms or by evaluating a single new treatment and comparing the results with those that were previously obtained with existing therapy.

Because of the relative rarity of cancer in children, all patients with brain tumors should be considered for entry into a clinical trial. To determine and implement optimum treatment, treatment planning by a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists who have experience treating childhood brain tumors is required. Radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors is technically very demanding and should be carried out in centers that have experience in that area in order to ensure optimal results.

Debilitating effects on growth and neurologic development have frequently been observed following radiation therapy, especially in younger children.[1][2][3] There are also other less-common complications of radiation therapy, including cerebrovascular accidents.[4] For this reason, the role of chemotherapy in allowing a delay in the administration of radiation therapy is under study, and preliminary results suggest that chemotherapy can be used to delay, and sometimes obviate, the need for radiation therapy in children with benign and malignant lesions.[5] Long-term management of these patients is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach.

References:

  1. Packer RJ, Sutton LN, Atkins TE, et al.: A prospective study of cognitive function in children receiving whole-brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy: 2-year results. J Neurosurg 70 (5): 707-13, 1989.

  2. Johnson DL, McCabe MA, Nicholson HS, et al.: Quality of long-term survival in young children with medulloblastoma. J Neurosurg 80 (6): 1004-10, 1994.

  3. Packer RJ, Sutton LN, Goldwein JW, et al.: Improved survival with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of medulloblastoma. J Neurosurg 74 (3): 433-40, 1991.

  4. Bowers DC, Mulne AF, Reisch JS, et al.: Nonperioperative strokes in children with central nervous system tumors. Cancer 94 (4): 1094-101, 2002.

  5. Duffner PK, Horowitz ME, Krischer JP, et al.: Postoperative chemotherapy and delayed radiation in children less than three years of age with malignant brain tumors. N Engl J Med 328 (24): 1725-31, 1993.

Treatment of Childhood Low-Grade Astrocytomas

To determine and implement optimum management, treatment is often guided by a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists who have experience treating childhood brain tumors.

In infants and young children, low-grade astrocytomas presenting in the hypothalamus may result in the diencephalic syndrome, which is manifested by failure to thrive in an emaciated, seemingly euphoric child. Such children may have little in the way of other neurologic findings, but can have macrocephaly, intermittent lethargy, and visual impairment.[1] Because the location of these tumors makes a surgical approach difficult, biopsies are not always done. This is especially true in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).[2] When associated with NF1, tumors may be of multifocal origin.

For children with low-grade optic pathway astrocytomas, treatment options should be considered not only to improve survival but also to stabilize visual function.[3][4] Children with isolated optic nerve tumors have a better prognosis than those with lesions that involve the chiasm or that extend along the visual pathway.[1][2][5][6]; [7][Level of evidence: 3iiC] Children with NF1 also have a better prognosis, especially when the tumor is found in asymptomatic patients at the time of screening.[5][8] Observation is an option for patients with NF1 or nonprogressive masses.[1][5][9][10] Spontaneous regressions of optic pathway gliomas have been reported in children with and without NF1.[11][12][13]

Surgery

Surgical resection is the primary treatment for childhood low-grade astrocytoma [1][2][5][14] and surgical feasibility is determined by tumor location. For example, complete or near complete removal can be obtained in 90% to 95% of patients with pilocytic tumors that occur in the cerebellum. Similarly, circumscribed, grade I hemispheric tumors are often amenable to complete surgical resection.[14][15][16] For children with isolated optic nerve lesions and progressive symptoms, complete surgical resection or local radiation therapy may result in prolonged progression-free survival (PFS).[17]

Factors related to outcome for children with low-grade gliomas treated with surgery followed by observation were identified in a Children’s Oncology Group study that included 518 evaluable patients.[14] Overall outcome for the entire group was 78% PFS at 8 years and 96% overall survival (OS) at 8 years. The following factors were related to prognosis:[14]

  • Histology: Approximately three-fourths of patients had pilocytic astrocytoma, and PFS and OS for these patients was superior to that of children with nonpilocytic tumors.
  • Extent of resection: Patients with gross total resection had 8-year PFS exceeding 90% and OS of 99%. By comparison, approximately one-half of patients with any degree of residual tumor (as assessed by operative report and by postoperative imaging) showed disease progression by 8 years, although OS exceeded 90%.
  • Age: Younger children (age <5 years) showed higher rates of tumor progression but there was no significant age effect for OS in multivariate analysis.
  • Tumor location: Cerebellar and cerebral tumors showed higher PFS at 8 years compared with patients with midline and chiasmatic tumors (84% ± 1.9% versus 51% ± 5.9%).

Diffuse astrocytomas may be less amenable to total resection, and this may account for the poorer outcome. The extent of resection necessary for cure, as noted above, is unknown because patients with microscopic and even gross residual tumor after surgery may experience long-term PFS without postoperative therapy.[2][9][14] The long-term functional outcome of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas is relatively favorable. Full-scale mean IQs of patients with low-grade gliomas treated with surgery alone are close to the normative population. However, long-term medical, psychological, and educational deficits may be present in these patients.[18][19][Level of evidence: 3iiiC]

Low-grade astrocytomas that occur in midline structures (e.g., hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and spinal cord) can also be aggressively resected, with resultant long-term disease control;[11][12][20]; [21][Level of evidence: 3iiiA] however, such resection may result in significant neurologic sequelae, especially in children younger than 2 years at diagnosis.[11]; [22][Level of evidence: 3iC] Because of the infiltrative nature of some deep-seated lesions, extensive surgical resection may not be appropriate and biopsy only should be considered.[23][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiii] Treatment options for patients with incompletely resected tumor must be individualized and may include observation, a second resection, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. A shunt or other cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedure may be needed.

Observation

Following resection, immediate (within 48 hours of resection per Children’s Oncology Group [COG] criteria) postoperative magnetic resonance imaging is obtained. Surveillance scans are then obtained periodically for completely resected tumors, although the value following the initial 3- to 6-month postoperative period is uncertain.[24]; [25][Level of evidence: 3iiDiii] In selected patients in whom a portion of the tumor has been resected, the patient may also be observed without further disease-directed treatment, particularly if the pace of tumor regrowth is anticipated to be very slow. Approximately 50% of patients with less-than-gross total resection may have disease that remains progression-free at 5 to 8 years, supporting the observation strategy in selected patients.[14]

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy is usually reserved until progressive disease is documented,[16][26] and its use may be further delayed through the use of chemotherapy, a strategy that is commonly employed in young children.[27][28] Radiation therapy results in long-term disease control for most children with chiasmatic and posterior pathway chiasmatic gliomas, but may also result in substantial intellectual and endocrinologic sequelae, cerebrovascular damage, and possibly an increased risk of secondary tumors.[11][17][29][30]; [31][Level of evidence: 2C] An alternative to immediate radiation therapy is subtotal surgical resection, but it is unclear how many patients will have stable disease and for how long.[11] Radiation therapy and alkylating agents are used as a last resort for patients with NF1, given the theoretically heightened risk of inducing neurologic toxic effects and second malignancy in this population.[32] Children with NF1 may be at higher risk for radiation-associated secondary tumors and morbidity due to vascular changes.

For children with low-grade glioma for whom radiation therapy is indicated, conformal radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery approaches appear effective and offer the potential for reducing the acute and long-term toxicities associated with this modality. Care must be taken in separating radiation-induced imaging changes from disease progression during the first year after radiation, especially in patients with pilocytic astrocytomas.[33][34][35]; [36][Level of evidence: 2A]; [31][Level of evidence: 2C]; [37][Level of evidence: 3iiiDi]; [38][Level of evidence: 3iiiDii]; [23][39][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiii]

Chemotherapy

Given the side effects associated with radiation therapy, chemotherapy may be particularly appropriate for patients with NF1 and for younger children.

Chemotherapy may result in objective tumor shrinkage and will delay the need for radiation therapy in most patients.[27][28][40][41] Chemotherapy has been shown to shrink tumors in children with hypothalamic gliomas and the diencephalic syndrome, resulting in weight gain in those who respond to treatment.[42]

The most widely used regimens to treat progression or symptomatic nonresectable, low-grade gliomas are carboplatin with or without vincristine [27][28][43] or a combination of thioguanine, procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine.[41]; [44][Level of evidence: 1iiA] Other chemotherapy approaches have been employed to treat children with progressive low-grade astrocytomas, including multiagent platinum-based regimens [28][40][45]; [46][Level of evidence: 2Diii] and temozolomide.[47][48]

Reported 5-year PFS rates have ranged from approximately 35% to 60% for children receiving platinum-based chemotherapy for optic pathway gliomas,[28][40] but most patients ultimately require further treatment. This is particularly true for children who initially present with hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas that have neuraxis dissemination.[49][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiii]

Among children receiving chemotherapy for optic pathway gliomas, those without NF1 have higher rates of disease progression than those with NF1, and infants have higher rates of disease progression than do children older than 1 year.[28][40][45] Whether vision is improved with chemotherapy is unclear.[50][51][Level of evidence: 3iiiC]

The COG completed a randomized phase III trial (COG-A9952) that treated children younger than 10 years with low-grade chiasmatic/hypothalamic gliomas on one of two regimens: carboplatin and vincristine or thioguanine (6-thioguanine), lomustine, and procarbazine hydrochloride given with vincristine. Children with NF1 were treated only on the carboplatin and vincristine arm. Study results are pending.

Most children with tuberous sclerosis have a mutation in one of two tuberous sclerosis genes (TSC1/hamartin or TSC2/tuberin). Either of these mutations results in an overexpression of the mTOR complex 1. These children are at risk for the development of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA), in addition to cortical tubers and subependymal nodules. For children with symptomatic SEGAs, agents that inhibit mTOR (e.g., everolimus and sirolimus) have been shown in small series to cause significant reductions in the size of these tumors, often eliminating the need for surgery.[52][Level of evidence: 2C]; [53][Level of evidence: 3iiiC] Whether reduction in size of the mass is durable, obviating the need for future surgery, is currently unknown.

Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation

Early-phase therapeutic trials may be available for selected patients. These trials may be available via Children's Oncology Group phase I institutions, the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium, or other entities. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood low-grade untreated astrocytoma or other tumor of glial origin. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

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  3. Nicolin G, Parkin P, Mabbott D, et al.: Natural history and outcome of optic pathway gliomas in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer 53 (7): 1231-7, 2009.

  4. Kramm CM, Butenhoff S, Rausche U, et al.: Thalamic high-grade gliomas in children: a distinct clinical subset? Neuro Oncol 13 (6): 680-9, 2011.

  5. Campbell JW, Pollack IF: Cerebellar astrocytomas in children. J Neurooncol 28 (2-3): 223-31, 1996 May-Jun.

  6. Massimi L, Tufo T, Di Rocco C: Management of optic-hypothalamic gliomas in children: still a challenging problem. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 7 (11): 1591-610, 2007.

  7. Campagna M, Opocher E, Viscardi E, et al.: Optic pathway glioma: long-term visual outcome in children without neurofibromatosis type-1. Pediatr Blood Cancer 55 (6): 1083-8, 2010.

  8. Hernáiz Driever P, von Hornstein S, Pietsch T, et al.: Natural history and management of low-grade glioma in NF-1 children. J Neurooncol 100 (2): 199-207, 2010.

  9. Hayostek CJ, Shaw EG, Scheithauer B, et al.: Astrocytomas of the cerebellum. A comparative clinicopathologic study of pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas. Cancer 72 (3): 856-69, 1993.

  10. Listernick R, Ferner RE, Liu GT, et al.: Optic pathway gliomas in neurofibromatosis-1: controversies and recommendations. Ann Neurol 61 (3): 189-98, 2007.

  11. Wisoff JH, Abbott R, Epstein F: Surgical management of exophytic chiasmatic-hypothalamic tumors of childhood. J Neurosurg 73 (5): 661-7, 1990.

  12. Albright AL: Feasibility and advisability of resections of thalamic tumors in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg 100 (5 Suppl Pediatrics): 468-72, 2004.

  13. Piccirilli M, Lenzi J, Delfinis C, et al.: Spontaneous regression of optic pathways gliomas in three patients with neurofibromatosis type I and critical review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst 22 (10): 1332-7, 2006.

  14. Wisoff JH, Sanford RA, Heier LA, et al.: Primary neurosurgery for pediatric low-grade gliomas: a prospective multi-institutional study from the Children's Oncology Group. Neurosurgery 68 (6): 1548-54; discussion 1554-5, 2011.

  15. Berger MS, Ghatan S, Haglund MM, et al.: Low-grade gliomas associated with intractable epilepsy: seizure outcome utilizing electrocorticography during tumor resection. J Neurosurg 79 (1): 62-9, 1993.

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  17. Jenkin D, Angyalfi S, Becker L, et al.: Optic glioma in children: surveillance, resection, or irradiation? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 25 (2): 215-25, 1993.

  18. Turner CD, Chordas CA, Liptak CC, et al.: Medical, psychological, cognitive and educational late-effects in pediatric low-grade glioma survivors treated with surgery only. Pediatr Blood Cancer 53 (3): 417-23, 2009.

  19. Daszkiewicz P, Maryniak A, Roszkowski M, et al.: Long-term functional outcome of surgical treatment of juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma of the cerebellum in children. Childs Nerv Syst 25 (7): 855-60, 2009.

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  21. Milano MT, Johnson MD, Sul J, et al.: Primary spinal cord glioma: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database study. J Neurooncol 98 (1): 83-92, 2010.

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  39. Mansur DB, Rubin JB, Kidd EA, et al.: Radiation therapy for pilocytic astrocytomas of childhood. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 79 (3): 829-34, 2011.

  40. Laithier V, Grill J, Le Deley MC, et al.: Progression-free survival in children with optic pathway tumors: dependence on age and the quality of the response to chemotherapy--results of the first French prospective study for the French Society of Pediatric Oncology. J Clin Oncol 21 (24): 4572-8, 2003.

  41. Prados MD, Edwards MS, Rabbitt J, et al.: Treatment of pediatric low-grade gliomas with a nitrosourea-based multiagent chemotherapy regimen. J Neurooncol 32 (3): 235-41, 1997.

  42. Gropman AL, Packer RJ, Nicholson HS, et al.: Treatment of diencephalic syndrome with chemotherapy: growth, tumor response, and long term control. Cancer 83 (1): 166-72, 1998.

  43. Gururangan S, Cavazos CM, Ashley D, et al.: Phase II study of carboplatin in children with progressive low-grade gliomas. J Clin Oncol 20 (13): 2951-8, 2002.

  44. Ater JL, Zhou T, Holmes E, et al.: Randomized study of two chemotherapy regimens for treatment of low-grade glioma in young children: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 30 (21): 2641-7, 2012.

  45. Massimino M, Spreafico F, Cefalo G, et al.: High response rate to cisplatin/etoposide regimen in childhood low-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol 20 (20): 4209-16, 2002.

  46. Massimino M, Spreafico F, Riva D, et al.: A lower-dose, lower-toxicity cisplatin-etoposide regimen for childhood progressive low-grade glioma. J Neurooncol 100 (1): 65-71, 2010.

  47. Gururangan S, Fisher MJ, Allen JC, et al.: Temozolomide in children with progressive low-grade glioma. Neuro Oncol 9 (2): 161-8, 2007.

  48. Khaw SL, Coleman LT, Downie PA, et al.: Temozolomide in pediatric low-grade glioma. Pediatr Blood Cancer 49 (6): 808-11, 2007.

  49. von Hornstein S, Kortmann RD, Pietsch T, et al.: Impact of chemotherapy on disseminated low-grade glioma in children and adolescents: report from the HIT-LGG 1996 trial. Pediatr Blood Cancer 56 (7): 1046-54, 2011.

  50. Moreno L, Bautista F, Ashley S, et al.: Does chemotherapy affect the visual outcome in children with optic pathway glioma? A systematic review of the evidence. Eur J Cancer 46 (12): 2253-9, 2010.

  51. Shofty B, Ben-Sira L, Freedman S, et al.: Visual outcome following chemotherapy for progressive optic pathway gliomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57 (3): 481-5, 2011.

  52. Krueger DA, Care MM, Holland K, et al.: Everolimus for subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis. N Engl J Med 363 (19): 1801-11, 2010.

  53. Franz DN, Leonard J, Tudor C, et al.: Rapamycin causes regression of astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis complex. Ann Neurol 59 (3): 490-8, 2006.

Treatment of Recurrent Childhood Low-Grade Astrocytomas

Childhood low-grade astrocytomas may recur many years after initial treatment. Recurrent disease is usually at the primary tumor site, though multifocal or widely disseminated disease to other intracranial sites and to the spinal leptomeninges has been documented.[1][2] Most children whose low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas recur will harbor low-grade lesions; however, malignant transformation is possible.[3]

At the time of recurrence, a complete evaluation to determine the extent of the relapse is indicated. Biopsy or surgical resection may be necessary for confirmation of relapse because other entities, such as secondary tumor and treatment-related brain necrosis, may be clinically indistinguishable from tumor recurrence. The need for surgical intervention must be individualized on the basis of the initial tumor type, the length of time between initial treatment and the reappearance of the mass lesion, and the clinical picture.

An individual plan needs to be tailored based on patient age, tumor location, and prior treatment. If patients have not received radiation therapy, local radiation therapy is the usual treatment,[4] although further chemotherapy in lieu of radiation may be considered, depending on the child's age and the extent and location of the tumor.[5][Level of evidence: 3iA]; [6][Level of evidence: 3iiiDi] For children with low-grade glioma for whom radiation therapy is indicated, conformal radiation therapy approaches appear effective and offer the potential for reducing the acute and long-term toxicities associated with this modality.[7][8] In patients treated with surgery alone whose disease progresses, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy are options. If recurrence takes place after irradiation, chemotherapy should be considered. Chemotherapy may result in relatively long-term disease control.[9][10] Vinblastine alone, temozolomide alone, or temozolomide in combination with carboplatin and vincristine may be useful at the time of recurrence for children with low-grade gliomas.[9][10][11]; [12][Level of evidence: 3iiDi]

Patients with low-grade astrocytomas who relapse after being treated with surgery alone should be considered for another surgical resection.[13] If this is not feasible, local radiation therapy is the usual treatment.[14] If there is recurrence in an unresectable site after irradiation, chemotherapy should be considered.[14]

Entry into studies of novel therapeutic approaches should be considered for patients with recurrent brain tumors.[15][16] Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation

Early-phase therapeutic trials may be available for selected patients. These trials may be available via Children's Oncology Group phase I institutions, the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium, or other entities. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent childhood astrocytoma or other tumor of glial origin. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

References:

  1. Perilongo G, Carollo C, Salviati L, et al.: Diencephalic syndrome and disseminated juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas of the hypothalamic-optic chiasm region. Cancer 80 (1): 142-6, 1997.

  2. Leibel SA, Sheline GE, Wara WM, et al.: The role of radiation therapy in the treatment of astrocytomas. Cancer 35 (6): 1551-7, 1975.

  3. Giannini C, Scheithauer BW: Classification and grading of low-grade astrocytic tumors in children. Brain Pathol 7 (2): 785-98, 1997.

  4. Jenkin D, Angyalfi S, Becker L, et al.: Optic glioma in children: surveillance, resection, or irradiation? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 25 (2): 215-25, 1993.

  5. Scheinemann K, Bartels U, Tsangaris E, et al.: Feasibility and efficacy of repeated chemotherapy for progressive pediatric low-grade gliomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57 (1): 84-8, 2011.

  6. de Haas V, Grill J, Raquin MA, et al.: Relapses of optic pathway tumors after first-line chemotherapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 52 (5): 575-80, 2009.

  7. Merchant TE, Conklin HM, Wu S, et al.: Late effects of conformal radiation therapy for pediatric patients with low-grade glioma: prospective evaluation of cognitive, endocrine, and hearing deficits. J Clin Oncol 27 (22): 3691-7, 2009.

  8. Marcus KJ, Goumnerova L, Billett AL, et al.: Stereotactic radiotherapy for localized low-grade gliomas in children: final results of a prospective trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 61 (2): 374-9, 2005.

  9. Packer RJ, Lange B, Ater J, et al.: Carboplatin and vincristine for recurrent and newly diagnosed low-grade gliomas of childhood. J Clin Oncol 11 (5): 850-6, 1993.

  10. Gnekow AK, Kortmann RD, Pietsch T, et al.: Low grade chiasmatic-hypothalamic glioma-carboplatin and vincristin chemotherapy effectively defers radiotherapy within a comprehensive treatment strategy -- report from the multicenter treatment study for children and adolescents with a low grade glioma -- HIT-LGG 1996 -- of the Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH). Klin Padiatr 216 (6): 331-42, 2004 Nov-Dec.

  11. Gururangan S, Fisher MJ, Allen JC, et al.: Temozolomide in children with progressive low-grade glioma. Neuro Oncol 9 (2): 161-8, 2007.

  12. Bouffet E, Jakacki R, Goldman S, et al.: Phase II study of weekly vinblastine in recurrent or refractory pediatric low-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol 30 (12): 1358-63, 2012.

  13. Austin EJ, Alvord EC Jr: Recurrences of cerebellar astrocytomas: a violation of Collins' law. J Neurosurg 68 (1): 41-7, 1988.

  14. Garcia DM, Marks JE, Latifi HR, et al.: Childhood cerebellar astrocytomas: is there a role for postoperative irradiation? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 18 (4): 815-8, 1990.

  15. Chamberlain MC, Grafe MR: Recurrent chiasmatic-hypothalamic glioma treated with oral etoposide. J Clin Oncol 13 (8): 2072-6, 1995.

  16. Gaynon PS, Ettinger LJ, Baum ES, et al.: Carboplatin in childhood brain tumors. A Children's Cancer Study Group Phase II trial. Cancer 66 (12): 2465-9, 1990.

Treatment of Childhood High-Grade Astrocytomas

To determine and implement optimum management, treatment is often guided by a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists who have experience treating childhood brain tumors.

The therapy for both children and adults with supratentorial high-grade astrocytoma includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Outcome in high-grade gliomas occurring in childhood may be more favorable than that in adults, but it is not clear if this difference is caused by biologic variations in tumor characteristics, therapies used, tumor resectability, or other factors that are presently not understood.[1] The ability to obtain a complete resection is associated with a better prognosis.[2] Radiation therapy is administered to a field that widely encompasses the entire tumor. The radiation therapy dose to the tumor bed is usually at least 54 Gy. Despite such therapy, overall survival rates remain poor. Similarly poor survival is seen in children with spinal cord primaries and children with thalamic high-grade gliomas.[3][4]; [5][Level of evidence: 3iiiA] In one trial, children with glioblastoma who were treated on a prospective randomized trial with adjuvant lomustine, vincristine, and prednisone fared better than children treated with radiation therapy alone.[6] Among patients treated with surgery, radiation therapy, and nitrosourea (lomustine)-based chemotherapy, 5-year progression-free survival was 19% ± 3%; survival was 40% in those who had total resections.[7] Similarly, in a trial of multiagent chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy in addition to valproic acid, 5-year event-free survival (EFS) was 13%, but for children with a complete resection of their tumor, the EFS was 48%.[8][Level of evidence: 2A] In adults, the addition of temozolomide during and after radiation therapy resulted in improved 2-year EFS as compared with treatment with radiation therapy alone. Adult patients with glioblastoma with a methylated O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter benefited from temozolomide, whereas those who did not have a methylated MGMT promoter did not benefit from temozolomide.[9][10] The role of temozolomide given concurrently with radiation therapy for children with supratentorial high-grade glioma appears comparable to the outcome seen in children treated with nitrosourea-based therapy [11] and again demonstrated a survival advantage for those children with a methylated MGMT promoter. Younger children may benefit from chemotherapy to delay, modify, or, in selected cases, obviate the need for radiation therapy.[12][13][14] Clinical trials that evaluate chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy are ongoing. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation

The following is an example of a national and/or institutional clinical trial that is currently being conducted or is under analysis. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

  • COG-ACNS0822 (Vorinostat, Temozolomide, or Bevacizumab in Combination With Radiation Therapy Followed by Bevacizumab and Temozolomide in Young Patients With Newly Diagnosed High-Grade Glioma): The Children's Oncology Group is conducting a randomized phase II/III study of vorinostat and local radiation therapy or temozolomide and local radiation therapy or bevacizumab and radiation therapy followed by maintenance bevacizumab and temozolomide in newly diagnosed high-grade glioma.

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood high-grade untreated astrocytoma or other tumor of glial origin. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

References:

  1. Rasheed BK, McLendon RE, Herndon JE, et al.: Alterations of the TP53 gene in human gliomas. Cancer Res 54 (5): 1324-30, 1994.

  2. Wisoff JH, Boyett JM, Berger MS, et al.: Current neurosurgical management and the impact of the extent of resection in the treatment of malignant gliomas of childhood: a report of the Children's Cancer Group trial no. CCG-945. J Neurosurg 89 (1): 52-9, 1998.

  3. Kramm CM, Butenhoff S, Rausche U, et al.: Thalamic high-grade gliomas in children: a distinct clinical subset? Neuro Oncol 13 (6): 680-9, 2011.

  4. Tendulkar RD, Pai Panandiker AS, Wu S, et al.: Irradiation of pediatric high-grade spinal cord tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 78 (5): 1451-6, 2010.

  5. Wolff B, Ng A, Roth D, et al.: Pediatric high grade glioma of the spinal cord: results of the HIT-GBM database. J Neurooncol 107 (1): 139-46, 2012.

  6. Sposto R, Ertel IJ, Jenkin RD, et al.: The effectiveness of chemotherapy for treatment of high grade astrocytoma in children: results of a randomized trial. A report from the Childrens Cancer Study Group. J Neurooncol 7 (2): 165-77, 1989.

  7. Fouladi M, Hunt DL, Pollack IF, et al.: Outcome of children with centrally reviewed low-grade gliomas treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy on Children's Cancer Group high-grade glioma study CCG-945. Cancer 98 (6): 1243-52, 2003.

  8. Wolff JE, Driever PH, Erdlenbruch B, et al.: Intensive chemotherapy improves survival in pediatric high-grade glioma after gross total resection: results of the HIT-GBM-C protocol. Cancer 116 (3): 705-12, 2010.

  9. Stupp R, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ, et al.: Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma. N Engl J Med 352 (10): 987-96, 2005.

  10. Hegi ME, Diserens AC, Gorlia T, et al.: MGMT gene silencing and benefit from temozolomide in glioblastoma. N Engl J Med 352 (10): 997-1003, 2005.

  11. Cohen KJ, Pollack IF, Zhou T, et al.: Temozolomide in the treatment of high-grade gliomas in children: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Neuro Oncol 13 (3): 317-23, 2011.

  12. Duffner PK, Horowitz ME, Krischer JP, et al.: Postoperative chemotherapy and delayed radiation in children less than three years of age with malignant brain tumors. N Engl J Med 328 (24): 1725-31, 1993.

  13. Duffner PK, Krischer JP, Burger PC, et al.: Treatment of infants with malignant gliomas: the Pediatric Oncology Group experience. J Neurooncol 28 (2-3): 245-56, 1996 May-Jun.

  14. Dufour C, Grill J, Lellouch-Tubiana A, et al.: High-grade glioma in children under 5 years of age: a chemotherapy only approach with the BBSFOP protocol. Eur J Cancer 42 (17): 2939-45, 2006.

Treatment of Recurrent Childhood High-Grade Astrocytomas

Most patients with high-grade astrocytomas or gliomas will eventually have tumor recurrence, usually within 3 years of original diagnosis but perhaps many years after initial treatment. Disease may recur at the primary tumor site, at the margin of the resection/radiation bed, or at noncontiguous central nervous system sites. Systemic relapse is rare but may occur. At the time of recurrence, a complete evaluation for extent of relapse is indicated for all malignant tumors. Biopsy or surgical resection may be necessary for confirmation of relapse because other entities, such as secondary tumor and treatment-related brain necrosis, may be clinically indistinguishable from tumor recurrence. The need for surgical intervention must be individualized on the basis of the initial tumor type, the length of time between initial treatment and the reappearance of the mass lesion, and the clinical picture.

Patients for whom initial treatment fails may benefit from additional treatment.[1] High-dose, marrow-ablative chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplant may be effective in a subset of patients with minimal residual disease at time of treatment.[2]; [3][Level of evidence: 3iiiA] Such patients should also be considered for entry into trials of novel therapeutic approaches. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation

Early-phase therapeutic trials may be available for selected patients. These trials may be available via Children's Oncology Group phase I institutions, the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium, or other entities. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent childhood astrocytoma or other tumor of glial origin. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

References:

  1. Warren KE, Gururangan S, Geyer JR, et al.: A phase II study of O6-benzylguanine and temozolomide in pediatric patients with recurrent or progressive high-grade gliomas and brainstem gliomas: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study. J Neurooncol 106 (3): 643-9, 2012.

  2. McCowage GB, Friedman HS, Moghrabi A, et al.: Activity of high-dose cyclophosphamide in the treatment of childhood malignant gliomas. Med Pediatr Oncol 30 (2): 75-80, 1998.

  3. Finlay JL, Dhall G, Boyett JM, et al.: Myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow rescue in children and adolescents with recurrent malignant astrocytoma: outcome compared with conventional chemotherapy: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 51 (6): 806-11, 2008.

Changes to this Summary (01/30/2013)

The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.

General Information  

Added text to state that other factors such as p16 deletion and tumor location may modify the impact of BRAF mutation on outcome (cited Horbinski et al. as reference 25).

Treatment of Childhood Low-Grade Astrocytomas  

Added Ater et al. as reference 44 and level of evidence 1iiA.

This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.


This information is provided by the National Cancer Institute.

This information was last updated on January 30, 2013.

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