If you would like a second opinion...
Our diagnostic team provides second opinions, including for challenging or difficult cases. We are happy to consult with you, your primary care physician, or other specialists.
You may want to consider a second opinion:
- To confirm your diagnosis
- For an evaluation of an uncommon presentation
- To have your original biopsies or other tissue diagnosis confirmed
- For details on the type and stage of cancer
- To better understand your treatment options
- To learn if you are eligible for clinical trials
Phone: 877-442-DFCI or 877-442-3324
Online: Complete the
Appointment Request Form
If you cannot travel to Boston in person, you can take advantage of our
Online Second Opinion service.
Tests to examine the cervix
Unlike other gynecologic cancers, cervical cancer can be detected through various screening tests. The most common screening test to detect cervical cancer or precancerous cells (dysplasia) is the Pap test. During a Pap test, the doctor takes a sample
of cells from the surface of the cervix inside the vagina, and then sends the sample to be reviewed by pathologists in a lab at DF/BWCC. If abnormal cells are found, follow-up tests will be performed. If cervical cancer is detected, you will be assigned
a dedicated team to provide personalized treatment.
Pap test. A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it. Then, a brush is inserted into the vagina to collect cells from the cervix. The cells are checked under a microscope for signs of disease.
In conjunction with your Pap test, a DNA test may be conducted to detect the presence of the human papillomavirus (HPV). The human papillomavirus is actually a group of viruses, and certain strains of the virus contribute directly to the development of
cervical cancer. An HPV test may be done if your Pap test shows abnormal cells. As with a Pap test, cells will be collected from the cervix and examined for a cervical HPV infection. The HPV DNA test may be used to determine the frequency of Pap test
screening based upon national guidelines.
It's important to understand that abnormal Pap test results are common, and that test abnormalities such as precancerous cells do not always indicate cervical cancer. Detecting cervical abnormalities or the HPV virus at an early stage is the best-case scenario, as most early detection cases can be managed and minimally treated before cancer develops.
Beyond the Pap test: diagnosing cervical cancer
When precancerous or cancerous cells are found through a Pap test or pelvic examination, we may perform additional tests, or cervical biopsies, to determine the presence of cervical cancer. During a biopsy a small portion of cervical cells or tissues will be removed for examination by our pathology experts. For some patients, one or more tests may be required, and additional treatment may follow. Some of the diagnostic tests that may be needed include:
- Colposcopy: A procedure that uses an instrument with magnifying lenses, called a colposcope, to examine the cervix for abnormalities. If abnormal tissue is found, a biopsy is usually performed (colposcopic biopsy) and small tissue samples will
be removed for further examination. A biopsy or endocervical curettage (ECC), a procedure to gently scrape the lining of the endocervical canal (the area running the length of the cervix), may be completed along with the colposcopy procedure.
- Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP): A procedure that uses a thin electric wire loop to obtain a slightly larger sample of cervical tissue so it can be examined under a microscope. This procedure is usually done in the office under local anesthesia.
- Cone biopsy (conization): a procedure in which a LEEP or cold-knife cone biopsy is used to remove a cone-shaped piece of cervical tissue for further examination. This procedure may require the use of general anesthesia. The cone biopsy procedure may be used to diagnose cervical cancer, as well as to treat or remove precancerous or early cancerous areas. This is usually performed if a diagnosis cannot be found after a colposcopy.
Determining the stage of cervical cancer
If cervical cancer is found after a biopsy, further tests are conducted to determine if the cancer cells have spread within the cervix or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if, and how far, the cancer has spread beyond the cervix
is called staging. It is important to know the stage of the cancer — in other words, how far the cancer has progressed — in order to plan treatment. Tests and procedures that may be used in the staging process include CT scan, PET scan, MRI, and fine-needle
Stages of cervical cancer
The staging of cervical cancer is the most important factor in determining your treatment plan. The stage of cervical cancer is carefully divided into categories based on the size and spread of cancer beyond the cervix and into other places in the body
(metastasis), such as the lymph nodes or other organs. The stages of cervical cancer are:
- Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ or dysplasia) indicates that abnormal cells have been found in the innermost lining of the cervix, but are not invasive (have not spread to nearby tissue). These cells are not cancer, but they are precancerous, which
means the cells may disappear naturally, or become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Treating precancerous cells will prevent them from spreading and becoming cancer.
- Stage I (stages IA and IB) is cancer in the cervix only.
- Stage II (stages IIA and IIB) indicates that cancer has spread beyond the cervix to the tissue around the uterus or to portions of the vagina. In this stage the cancer has not spread to the pelvic wall (the tissues that line the part of the
body between the hips).
- Stage III (stages IIIA and IIIB) means the cancer has invaded most of the vagina and possibly the tissues between the hips (pelvic wall). Stage III may also indicate that cancer is interfering with proper kidney function.
- Stage IV (stage IVA and IVB) is cancer that has spread beyond the cervix to the vulva or urethra, bladder, and rectum, or to other parts of the body, such as the kidneys, lungs, liver, abdomen, or intestinal tract.