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Joseph G. Sodroski, MD


Researcher

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Researcher

  • Principal Investigator, Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
  • Professor of Microbiology, Harvard Medical School
  • Professor, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
  • Associate Director, Harvard University Center for AIDS Research, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Contact Information

  • Office Phone Number(617) 632-3371
  • Fax(617) 632-4338

Bio

Dr. Sodroski received his MD in 1980 from Jefferson Medical College, followed by a research fellowship in Dr. William Haseltine's laboratory at DFCI. In 1984 he joined the faculty of DFCI and Harvard Medical School. His research focuses on the replication and pathogenesis of HIV, and the innate and adaptive host immune response to retrovirus infections.

Recent Awards:

  • Harvey Lecture, New York 2005
  • The William Potter Lecture, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia 2005
  • Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science 2008
  • Retrovirology Prize (Ming K. Jeang Foundation) 2006
  • Steven F. Degar Memorial Lecture, Yale University 2006

Research

Pathogenesis of human retroviruses

The major interests of the laboratory are the early events in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection. Understanding and blocking these early events are critical to interrupting HIV-1 transmission and changing the course of the global AIDS pandemic. The laboratory studies HIV-1 entry into cells, a process that is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins. These glycoproteins bind receptors on the target cell and fuse viral and cell membranes. The laboratory is devoted to understanding this process at the molecular level, and identifying and characterizing inhibitors. The interaction of neutralizing antibodies with the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins is being studied.

In virus-producing cells, expression of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins results in cytopathic effects. These toxic effects result from the membrane-fusing activity of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which results in damage to the host cell membranes. The contribution of these processes to the depletion of CD4-positive T lymphocytes in vivo is being studied. The laboratory is also investigating the molecular events involved in the uncoating of the HIV-1 capsid following the entry of the virus into the host cell. In some mammalian species, tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins have evolved to recognize retroviral capsids and block virus infection. The molecular basis for this novel form of innate intracellular immunity is being pursued.

Modulating HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein conformation to decrease the HIV-1 reservoir. Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Jun 09; 29(6):904-916.e6.
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Analysis of glycosylation and disulfide bonding of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. bioRxiv. 2021 Apr 01.
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Dual Pathways of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trafficking Modulate the Selective Exclusion of Uncleaved Oligomers from Virions. J Virol. 2021 01 13; 95(3).
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Spike glycoprotein and host cell determinants of SARS-CoV-2 entry and cytopathic effects. J Virol. 2020 Dec 11.
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SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody responses are more robust in patients with severe disease. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Dec; 9(1):2091-2093.
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Correction for Lu et al., "Shedding-Resistant HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins Adopt Downstream Conformations That Remain Responsive to Conformation-Preferring Ligands". J Virol. 2020 Oct 27; 94(22).
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Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of HIV-1 Envelope Trimers Complexed to a Small-Molecule Viral Entry Inhibitor. J Virol. 2020 10 14; 94(21).
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Opening the HIV envelope: potential of CD4 mimics as multifunctional HIV entry inhibitors. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2020 09; 15(5):300-308.
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Shedding-Resistant HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins Adopt Downstream Conformations That Remain Responsive to Conformation-Preferring Ligands. J Virol. 2020 08 17; 94(17).
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Potent neutralizing antibodies against multiple epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 spike. Nature. 2020 08; 584(7821):450-456.
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Potent Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Directed to Multiple Epitopes on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike. bioRxiv. 2020 Jun 18.
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Slow Receptor Binding of the Noncytopathic HIV-2UC1 Envs Is Balanced by Long-Lived Activation State and Efficient Fusion Activity. Cell Rep. 2020 06 09; 31(10):107749.
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The HIV-1 Env gp120 Inner Domain Shapes the Phe43 Cavity and the CD4 Binding Site. mBio. 2020 05 26; 11(3).
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The Conformational States of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins. Trends Microbiol. 2020 08; 28(8):655-667.
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Gp41-targeted antibodies restore infectivity of a fusion-deficient HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. PLoS Pathog. 2020 05; 16(5):e1008577.
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Long-Acting BMS-378806 Analogues Stabilize the State-1 Conformation of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Glycoproteins. J Virol. 2020 05 04; 94(10).
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A New Family of Small-Molecule CD4-Mimetic Compounds Contacts Highly Conserved Aspartic Acid 368 of HIV-1 gp120 and Mediates Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity. J Virol. 2019 12 15; 93(24).
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CD4 Incorporation into HIV-1 Viral Particles Exposes Envelope Epitopes Recognized by CD4-Induced Antibodies. J Virol. 2019 11 15; 93(22).
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Strain-Dependent Activation and Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Entry by a Specific PF-68742 Stereoisomer. J Virol. 2019 11 01; 93(21).
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Effects of the SOS (A501C/T605C) and DS (I201C/A433C) Disulfide Bonds on HIV-1 Membrane Envelope Glycoprotein Conformation and Function. J Virol. 2019 06 15; 93(12).
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Associating HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein structures with states on the virus observed by smFRET. Nature. 2019 04; 568(7752):415-419.
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An Asymmetric Opening of HIV-1 Envelope Mediates Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity. . 2019 Apr 10; 25(4):578-587.e5.
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Robustness of signal detection in cryo-electron microscopy via a bi-objective-function approach. BMC Bioinformatics. 2019 Apr 03; 20(1):169.
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Blocking HIV-1 Infection by Chromosomal Integrative Expression of Human CD4 on the Surface of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356. J Virol. 2019 04 15; 93(8).
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Conformational Differences between Functional Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers and Stabilized Soluble Trimers. J Virol. 2019 02 01; 93(3).
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Lattice engineering enables definition of molecular features allowing for potent small-molecule inhibition of HIV-1 entry. Nat Commun. 2019 01 03; 10(1):47.
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Visualization of HIV-1 RNA Transcription from Integrated HIV-1 DNA in Reactivated Latently Infected Cells. Viruses. 2018 09 30; 10(10).
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SOSIP Changes Affect Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Glycoprotein Conformation and CD4 Engagement. J Virol. 2018 10 01; 92(19).
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A Small-Molecule CD4-Mimetic Compound Protects Bone Marrow-Liver-Thymus Humanized Mice From HIV-1 Infection. J Infect Dis. 2018 07 02; 218(3):471-475.
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Contribution of the gp120 V3 loop to envelope glycoprotein trimer stability in primate immunodeficiency viruses. Virology. 2018 08; 521:158-168.
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A CD4-mimetic compound enhances vaccine efficacy against stringent immunodeficiency virus challenge. Nat Commun. 2018 06 18; 9(1):2363.
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Comparison of Uncleaved and Mature Human Immunodeficiency Virus Membrane Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers. J Virol. 2018 06 15; 92(12).
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Folding DNA into a Lipid-Conjugated Nanobarrel for Controlled Reconstitution of Membrane Proteins. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2018 02 19; 57(8):2072-2076.
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Publisher Correction: The ß20-ß21 of gp120 is a regulatory switch for HIV-1 Env conformational transitions. Nat Commun. 2018 01 08; 9(1):158.
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Localization to detergent-resistant membranes and HIV-1 core entry inhibition correlate with HIV-1 restriction by SERINC5. Virology. 2018 02; 515:52-65.
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The ß20-ß21 of gp120 is a regulatory switch for HIV-1 Env conformational transitions. Nat Commun. 2017 10 19; 8(1):1049.
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Crystal structures of trimeric HIV envelope with entry inhibitors BMS-378806 and BMS-626529. Nat Chem Biol. 2017 Oct; 13(10):1115-1122.
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Induction of a Tier-1-Like Phenotype in Diverse Tier-2 Isolates by Agents That Guide HIV-1 Env to Perturbation-Sensitive, Nonnative States. J Virol. 2017 08 01; 91(15).
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An entry-competent intermediate state of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. Receptors Clin Investig. 2017; 4(1).
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Adaptation of HIV-1 to cells with low expression of the CCR5 coreceptor. Virology. 2017 08; 508:90-107.
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BST-2 Expression Modulates Small CD4-Mimetic Sensitization of HIV-1-Infected Cells to Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity. J Virol. 2017 06 01; 91(11).
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Glycosylation Benchmark Profile for HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Production Based on Eleven Env Trimers. J Virol. 2017 05 01; 91(9).
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Mimicry of an HIV broadly neutralizing antibody epitope with a synthetic glycopeptide. Sci Transl Med. 2017 03 15; 9(381).
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Influence of the Envelope gp120 Phe 43 Cavity on HIV-1 Sensitivity to Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Responses. J Virol. 2017 04 01; 91(7).
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Evaluation of the contribution of the transmembrane region to the ectodomain conformation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein. Virol J. 2017 02 16; 14(1):33.
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Residues in the gp41 Ectodomain Regulate HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Conformational Transitions Induced by gp120-Directed Inhibitors. J Virol. 2017 03 01; 91(5).
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Antigenic characterization of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein precursor incorporated into nanodiscs. PLoS One. 2017; 12(2):e0170672.
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Activation and Inactivation of Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers by CD4-Mimetic Compounds. J Virol. 2017 Feb 01; 91(3).
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Short Communication: Small-Molecule CD4 Mimetics Sensitize HIV-1-Infected Cells to Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity by Antibodies Elicited by Multiple Envelope Glycoprotein Immunogens in Nonhuman Primates. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2017 05; 33(5):428-431.
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Characterization of two distinct early post-entry blocks to HIV-1 in common marmoset lymphocytes. Sci Rep. 2016 11 23; 6:37489.
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Release of gp120 Restraints Leads to an Entry-Competent Intermediate State of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins. mBio. 2016 10 25; 7(5).
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Co-receptor Binding Site Antibodies Enable CD4-Mimetics to Expose Conserved Anti-cluster A ADCC Epitopes on HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins. EBioMedicine. 2016 Oct; 12:208-218.
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Amino Acid Changes in the HIV-1 gp41 Membrane Proximal Region Control Virus Neutralization Sensitivity. EBioMedicine. 2016 Oct; 12:196-207.
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Envelope residue 375 substitutions in simian-human immunodeficiency viruses enhance CD4 binding and replication in rhesus macaques. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 06 14; 113(24):E3413-22.
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Antibodies Elicited by Multiple Envelope Glycoprotein Immunogens in Primates Neutralize Primary Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV-1) Sensitized by CD4-Mimetic Compounds. J Virol. 2016 05 15; 90(10):5031-5046.
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HIV-Host Interactions: Implications for Vaccine Design. . 2016 Mar 09; 19(3):292-303.
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Small-Molecule CD4-Mimics: Structure-Based Optimization of HIV-1 Entry Inhibition. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2016 Mar 10; 7(3):330-4.
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Small CD4 Mimetics Prevent HIV-1 Uninfected Bystander CD4 + T Cell Killing Mediated by Antibody-dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity. EBioMedicine. 2016 Jan; 3:122-134.
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Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity against Reactivated HIV-1-Infected Cells. J Virol. 2016 02 15; 90(4):2021-30.
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HIV-1 Adapts To Replicate in Cells Expressing Common Marmoset APOBEC3G and BST2. J Virol. 2016 01 15; 90(2):725-40.
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Strain-Specific V3 and CD4 Binding Site Autologous HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Select Neutralization-Resistant Viruses. . 2015 Sep 09; 18(3):354-62.
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Comparative Analysis of the Glycosylation Profiles of Membrane-Anchored HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers and Soluble gp140. J Virol. 2015 Aug; 89(16):8245-57.
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CD4 mimetics sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 May 19; 112(20):E2687-94.
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Effects of the I559P gp41 change on the conformation and function of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) membrane envelope glycoprotein trimer. PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0122111.
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Efficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection of cells lacking PDZD8. Virology. 2015 Jul; 481:73-8.
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Infection of monkeys by simian-human immunodeficiency viruses with transmitted/founder clade C HIV-1 envelopes. Virology. 2015 Jan 15; 475:37-45.
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Structure of BMS-806, a Small-molecule HIV-1 Entry Inhibitor, Bound to BG505 SOSIP.664 HIV-1 Env Trimer. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Oct; 30 Suppl 1:A151.
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A broad HIV-1 inhibitor blocks envelope glycoprotein transitions critical for entry. Nat Chem Biol. 2014 Oct; 10(10):845-52.
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Contribution of glutamine residues in the helix 4-5 loop to capsid-capsid interactions in simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques. J Virol. 2014 Sep; 88(18):10289-302.
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CD4-mimetic small molecules sensitize human immunodeficiency virus to vaccine-elicited antibodies. J Virol. 2014 Jun; 88(12):6542-55.
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Contribution of PDZD8 to stabilization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid. J Virol. 2014 May; 88(9):4612-23.
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Loss of a conserved N-linked glycosylation site in the simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein V2 region enhances macrophage tropism by increasing CD4-independent cell-to-cell transmission. J Virol. 2014 May; 88(9):5014-28.
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Structure-based design, synthesis and validation of CD4-mimetic small molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 entry: conversion of a viral entry agonist to an antagonist. Acc Chem Res. 2014 Apr 15; 47(4):1228-37.
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Interaction with cellular CD4 exposes HIV-1 envelope epitopes targeted by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. J Virol. 2014 Mar; 88(5):2633-44.
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Modeling virus- and antibody-specific factors to predict human immunodeficiency virus neutralization efficiency. . 2013 Nov 13; 14(5):547-58.
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Reply to Subramaniam, van Heel, and Henderson: Validity of the cryo-electron microscopy structures of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 05; 110(45):E4178-82.
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Recognition of synthetic glycopeptides by HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies and their unmutated ancestors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 05; 110(45):18214-9.
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The selection of low envelope glycoprotein reactivity to soluble CD4 and cold during simian-human immunodeficiency virus infection of rhesus macaques. J Virol. 2014 Jan; 88(1):21-40.
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Chemical synthesis of highly congested gp120 V1V2 N-glycopeptide antigens for potential HIV-1-directed vaccines. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 Sep 04; 135(35):13113-20.
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A twin-cysteine motif in the V2 region of gp120 is associated with SIV envelope trimer stabilization. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69406.
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Molecular architecture of the uncleaved HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jul 23; 110(30):12438-43.
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Virus-specific effects of TRIM5a(rh) RING domain functions on restriction of retroviruses. J Virol. 2013 Jul; 87(13):7234-45.
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Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of an HIV-1 Entry Inhibitor Exploiting X-Ray and Thermodynamic Characterization. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2013 Mar 14; 4(3):338-343.
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Characterization of a dual-tropic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) strain derived from the prototypical X4 isolate HXBc2. Virology. 2013 Mar 30; 438(1):5-13.
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The HIV-1 gp120 major variable regions modulate cold inactivation. J Virol. 2013 Apr; 87(7):4103-11.
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Enhanced autointegration in hyperstable simian immunodeficiency virus capsid mutants blocked after reverse transcription. J Virol. 2013 Apr; 87(7):3628-39.
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The highly conserved layer-3 component of the HIV-1 gp120 inner domain is critical for CD4-required conformational transitions. J Virol. 2013 Mar; 87(5):2549-62.
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Identification of interdependent variables that influence coreceptor switch in R5 SHIV(SF162P3N)-infected macaques. Retrovirology. 2012 Dec 13; 9:106.
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Proteolytic processing of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein precursor decreases conformational flexibility. J Virol. 2013 Feb; 87(3):1884-9.
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HIV-1 Env gp120 structural determinants for peptide triazole dual receptor site antagonism. Proteins. 2013 Feb; 81(2):271-90.
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A novel synthetic bivalent ligand to probe chemokine receptor CXCR4 dimerization and inhibit HIV-1 entry. Biochemistry. 2012 Sep 11; 51(36):7078-86.
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Subunit organization of the membrane-bound HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012 Sep; 19(9):893-9.
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Lineage-specific differences between human and simian immunodeficiency virus regulation of gp120 trimer association and CD4 binding. J Virol. 2012 Sep; 86(17):8974-86.
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Inhibiting early-stage events in HIV-1 replication by small-molecule targeting of the HIV-1 capsid. J Virol. 2012 Aug; 86(16):8472-81.
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Structure-based design, synthesis, and characterization of dual hotspot small-molecule HIV-1 entry inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2012 May 10; 55(9):4382-96.
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Unliganded HIV-1 gp120 core structures assume the CD4-bound conformation with regulation by quaternary interactions and variable loops. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Apr 10; 109(15):5663-8.
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High-mannose glycan-dependent epitopes are frequently targeted in broad neutralizing antibody responses during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2012 Feb; 86(4):2153-64.
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Role of CXCR4 internalization in the anti-HIV activity of stromal cell-derived factor-1a probed by a novel synthetically and modularly modified-chemokine analog. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2011 Dec; 236(12):1413-9.
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An inducible cell-cell fusion system with integrated ability to measure the efficiency and specificity of HIV-1 entry inhibitors. PLoS One. 2011; 6(11):e26731.
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Recurrent signature patterns in HIV-1 B clade envelope glycoproteins associated with either early or chronic infections. PLoS Pathog. 2011 Sep; 7(9):e1002209.
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Liposomes for HIV prophylaxis. Biomaterials. 2011 Nov; 32(33):8663-8.
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Analysis of a clonal lineage of HIV-1 envelope V2/V3 conformational epitope-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies and their inferred unmutated common ancestors. J Virol. 2011 Oct; 85(19):9998-10009.
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Adoption of an "open" envelope conformation facilitating CD4 binding and structural remodeling precedes coreceptor switch in R5 SHIV-infected macaques. PLoS One. 2011; 6(7):e21350.
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Phenotypic and immunologic comparison of clade B transmitted/founder and chronic HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. J Virol. 2011 Sep; 85(17):8514-27.
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Contribution of intrinsic reactivity of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins to CD4-independent infection and global inhibitor sensitivity. PLoS Pathog. 2011 Jun; 7(6):e1002101.
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Determinants of the higher order association of the restriction factor TRIM5alpha and other tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins. J Biol Chem. 2011 Aug 12; 286(32):27959-70.
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Role of TRIM5a RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in capsid disassembly, reverse transcription blockade, and restriction of simian immunodeficiency virus. J Virol. 2011 Aug; 85(16):8116-32.
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Trafficking of some old world primate TRIM5a proteins through the nucleus. Retrovirology. 2011 May 15; 8:38.
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Graphene structures at an extreme degree of buckling. ACS Nano. 2011 Feb 22; 5(2):1395-400.
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Characterization of a core fragment of the rhesus monkey TRIM5a protein. BMC Biochem. 2011 Jan 04; 12:1.
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Hexagonal assembly of a restricting TRIM5alpha protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jan 11; 108(2):534-9.
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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of small molecule inhibitors of CD4-gp120 binding based on virtual screening. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Jan 01; 19(1):91-101.
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Adaptation of HIV-1 to cells expressing rhesus monkey TRIM5a. Virology. 2010 Dec 20; 408(2):204-12.
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Thermal stability of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) receptors, CD4 and CXCR4, reconstituted in proteoliposomes. PLoS One. 2010 Oct 13; 5(10):e13249.
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Hydrocarbon double-stapling remedies the proteolytic instability of a lengthy peptide therapeutic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 10; 107(32):14093-8.
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Structural basis for broad and potent neutralization of HIV-1 by antibody VRC01. Science. 2010 Aug 13; 329(5993):811-7.
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Conformational characterization of aberrant disulfide-linked HIV-1 gp120 dimers secreted from overexpressing cells. J Virol Methods. 2010 Sep; 168(1-2):155-61.
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Flexible use of nuclear import pathways by HIV-1. . 2010 Mar 18; 7(3):221-33.
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Topological layers in the HIV-1 gp120 inner domain regulate gp41 interaction and CD4-triggered conformational transitions. Mol Cell. 2010 Mar 12; 37(5):656-67.
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Species-specific inhibition of foamy viruses from South American monkeys by New World Monkey TRIM5{alpha} proteins. J Virol. 2010 Apr; 84(8):4095-9.
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TRIM5alpha Modulates Immunodeficiency Virus Control in Rhesus Monkeys. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Jan 22; 6(1):e1000738.
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A V3 loop-dependent gp120 element disrupted by CD4 binding stabilizes the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein trimer. J Virol. 2010 Apr; 84(7):3147-61.
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Simian TRIM5alpha proteins reduce replication of herpes simplex virus. Virology. 2010 Mar 15; 398(2):243-50.
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Structure of HIV-1 gp120 with gp41-interactive region reveals layered envelope architecture and basis of conformational mobility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jan 19; 107(3):1166-71.
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Structural basis of immune evasion at the site of CD4 attachment on HIV-1 gp120. Science. 2009 Nov 20; 326(5956):1123-7.
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Epitopes for broad and potent neutralizing antibody responses during chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Virology. 2010 Jan 20; 396(2):339-48.
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Target cell type-dependent modulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid disassembly by cyclophilin A. J Virol. 2009 Nov; 83(21):10951-62.
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A B-box 2 surface patch important for TRIM5alpha self-association, capsid binding avidity, and retrovirus restriction. J Virol. 2009 Oct; 83(20):10737-51.
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A rare null allele potentially encoding a dominant-negative TRIM5alpha protein in Baka pygmies. Virology. 2009 Aug 15; 391(1):140-7.
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Transitions to and from the CD4-bound conformation are modulated by a single-residue change in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 inner domain. J Virol. 2009 Sep; 83(17):8364-78.
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Soluble CD4 and CD4-mimetic compounds inhibit HIV-1 infection by induction of a short-lived activated state. PLoS Pathog. 2009 Apr; 5(4):e1000360.
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Oligomer-specific conformations of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) gp41 envelope glycoprotein ectodomain recognized by human monoclonal antibodies. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009 Mar; 25(3):319-28.
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Identification of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein variant resistant to cold inactivation. J Virol. 2009 May; 83(9):4476-88.
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Small-molecule CD4 mimics interact with a highly conserved pocket on HIV-1 gp120. Structure. 2008 Nov 12; 16(11):1689-701.
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Biochemical characterization of a recombinant TRIM5alpha protein that restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication. J Virol. 2008 Dec; 82(23):11682-94.
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Biochemical and biophysical characterization of a chimeric TRIM21-TRIM5alpha protein. J Virol. 2008 Dec; 82(23):11669-81.
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The TRIM5alpha B-box 2 domain promotes cooperative binding to the retroviral capsid by mediating higher-order self-association. J Virol. 2008 Dec; 82(23):11495-502.
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Mode of transmission affects the sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to restriction by rhesus TRIM5alpha. J Virol. 2008 Nov; 82(22):11117-28.
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A human TRIM5alpha B30.2/SPRY domain mutant gains the ability to restrict and prematurely uncoat B-tropic murine leukemia virus. Virology. 2008 Sep 01; 378(2):233-42.
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Structural determinants for affinity enhancement of a dual antagonist peptide entry inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type-1. J Med Chem. 2008 May 08; 51(9):2638-47.
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The challenges of eliciting neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 and to influenza virus. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008 Feb; 6(2):143-55.
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Comparative requirements for the restriction of retrovirus infection by TRIM5alpha and TRIMCyp. Virology. 2007 Dec 20; 369(2):400-10.
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Adaptation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins to new world monkey receptors. J Virol. 2008 Jan; 82(1):346-57.
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Structures of the CCR5 N terminus and of a tyrosine-sulfated antibody with HIV-1 gp120 and CD4. Science. 2007 Sep 28; 317(5846):1930-4.
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HIV-1 envelope protein gp140 binding studies to human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Nov 23; 363(3):466-71.
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Crystal structure and structural mechanism of a novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus and D-amino acid-containing chemokine. J Virol. 2007 Oct; 81(20):11489-98.
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Modulation of retroviral restriction and proteasome inhibitor-resistant turnover by changes in the TRIM5alpha B-box 2 domain. J Virol. 2007 Oct; 81(19):10362-78.
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The ability of multimerized cyclophilin A to restrict retrovirus infection. Virology. 2007 Oct 10; 367(1):19-29.
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Functional interplay between the B-box 2 and the B30.2(SPRY) domains of TRIM5alpha. Virology. 2007 Sep 30; 366(2):234-44.
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Antibody binding in proximity to the receptor/glycoprotein complex leads to a basal level of virus neutralization. J Virol. 2007 Aug; 81(16):8809-13.
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Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 monomeric and trimeric gp120 glycoproteins stabilized in the CD4-bound state: antigenicity, biophysics, and immunogenicity. J Virol. 2007 Jun; 81(11):5579-93.
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Complex determinants within the Moloney murine leukemia virus capsid modulate susceptibility of the virus to Fv1 and Ref1-mediated restriction. Virology. 2007 Jul 05; 363(2):245-55.
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Structural definition of a conserved neutralization epitope on HIV-1 gp120. Nature. 2007 Feb 15; 445(7129):732-7.
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Unique features of TRIM5alpha among closely related human TRIM family members. Virology. 2007 Apr 10; 360(2):419-33.
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The human TRIM5alpha restriction factor mediates accelerated uncoating of the N-tropic murine leukemia virus capsid. J Virol. 2007 Mar; 81(5):2138-48.
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Thermodynamics of binding of a low-molecular-weight CD4 mimetic to HIV-1 gp120. Biochemistry. 2006 Sep 12; 45(36):10973-80.
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Antibody binding is a dominant determinant of the efficiency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization. J Virol. 2006 Nov; 80(22):11404-8.
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Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein- mediated single cell lysis by low-molecular-weight antagonists of viral entry. J Virol. 2007 Jan; 81(2):532-8.
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The beta-chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR5 facilitate infection by primary HIV-1 isolates. Cell. 1996 Jun 28; 85(7):1135-48.
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Utility of SHIV for testing HIV-1 vaccine candidates in macaques. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1996 Jun 01; 12(2):99-106.
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Vaginal transmission of chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency viruses in rhesus macaques. J Virol. 1996 May; 70(5):3045-50.
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An env gene derived from a primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate confers high in vivo replicative capacity to a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys. J Virol. 1996 May; 70(5):3198-206.
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Cyclic AMP-mediated growth arrest is associated with increased expression of human T cell leukemia virus type I structural and transforming genes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1996 Apr 10; 12(6):527-33.
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Targeting a foreign protein into virion particles by fusion with the Vpx protein of simian immunodeficiency virus. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1996 Apr 01; 11(4):341-50.
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Antibody cross-competition analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein. J Virol. 1996 Mar; 70(3):1863-72.
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Molecular cloning and analysis of functional envelope genes from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 sequence subtypes A through G. The WHO and NIAID Networks for HIV Isolation and Characterization. J Virol. 1996 Mar; 70(3):1651-67.
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Molecular determinants of acute single-cell lysis by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 1996 Mar; 70(3):1340-54.
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Human monoclonal antibody 2G12 defines a distinctive neutralization epitope on the gp120 glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 1996 Feb; 70(2):1100-8.
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Amino acid sequence requirements for the incorporation of the Vpx protein of simian immunodeficiency virus into virion particles. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Dec 15; 10(5):506-10.
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Persistent infection of macaques with simian-human immunodeficiency viruses. J Virol. 1995 Nov; 69(11):7061-7.
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A defective HIV-1 vector for gene transfer to human lymphocytes. J Mol Med (Berl). 1995 Jun; 73(6):279-88.
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Functional analysis of the vpx, vpr, and nef genes of simian immunodeficiency virus. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Apr 01; 8(4):335-44.
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Neutralizing recombinant human antibodies to a conformational V2- and CD4-binding site-sensitive epitope of HIV-1 gp120 isolated by using an epitope-masking procedure. J Immunol. 1995 Jan 15; 154(2):893-906.
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Identification and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for polymorphic antigenic determinants within the V2 region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein. J Virol. 1995 Jan; 69(1):222-30.
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Structural characterization of broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against the CD4 binding site of HIV-1 gp120. Mol Immunol. 1994 Oct; 31(15):1149-60.
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Analysis in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vectors of cis-acting sequences that affect gene transfer into human lymphocytes. J Virol. 1994 Jun; 68(6):3888-95.
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Probing the structure of the human immunodeficiency virus surface glycoprotein gp120 with a panel of monoclonal antibodies. J Virol. 1994 Jan; 68(1):469-84.
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Functional and immunologic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins containing deletions of the major variable regions. J Virol. 1993 Aug; 67(8):4557-65.
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Characterization of conserved human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 neutralization epitopes exposed upon gp120-CD4 binding. J Virol. 1993 Jul; 67(7):3978-88.
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Relationship of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 third variable loop to a component of the CD4 binding site in the fourth conserved region. J Virol. 1992 Dec; 66(12):6997-7004.
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Role of vif in replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol. 1992 Nov; 66(11):6489-95.
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Characterization of the cDNA of a broadly reactive neutralizing human anti-gp120 monoclonal antibody. J Clin Invest. 1992 Oct; 90(4):1467-78.
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Dissociation of unintegrated viral DNA accumulation from single-cell lysis induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 1992 Oct; 66(10):5777-87.
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The human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) transactivator (Tax) protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992 Sep 14; 1114(1):19-29.
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Discontinuous, conserved neutralization epitopes overlapping the CD4-binding region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein. J Virol. 1992 Sep; 66(9):5635-41.
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Effects of CD4 synthetic peptides on HIV type I envelope glycoprotein function. J Immunol. 1992 Sep 01; 149(5):1809-16.
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Amino acid residues of the human immunodeficiency virus type I gp120 critical for the binding of rat and human neutralizing antibodies that block the gp120-sCD4 interaction. Virology. 1992 Sep; 190(1):134-42.
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Lack of correlation between soluble CD4-induced shedding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 exterior envelope glycoprotein and subsequent membrane fusion events. J Virol. 1992 Sep; 66(9):5516-24.
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Role of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 X region proteins in immortalization of primary human lymphocytes in culture. J Virol. 1992 Jul; 66(7):4570-5.
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Effects of deletions in the cytoplasmic domain on biological functions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins. J Virol. 1992 Jun; 66(6):3306-15.
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Target cell-specific determinants of membrane fusion within the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 third variable region and gp41 amino terminus. J Virol. 1992 Apr; 66(4):2389-97.
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Contribution of charged amino acids in the CDR2 region of CD4 to HIV-1 gp120 binding. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1992; 5(2):204-10.
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Infection of cynomolgus monkeys with a chimeric HIV-1/SIVmac virus that expresses the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1992; 5(7):639-46.
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Contribution of disulfide bonds in the carboxyl terminus of the human immunodeficiency virus type I gp120 glycoprotein to CD4 binding. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1992; 5(1):78-81.
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Cooperativity of neutralizing antibodies directed against the V3 and CD4 binding regions of the human immunodeficiency virus gp120 envelope glycoprotein. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1992; 5(6):591-9.
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Characterization of a discontinuous human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 epitope recognized by a broadly reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody. J Virol. 1991 Nov; 65(11):6188-93.
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Effects of changes in gp120-CD4 binding affinity on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein function and soluble CD4 sensitivity. J Virol. 1991 Sep; 65(9):5007-12.
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Effect of mutations affecting the p6 gag protein on human immunodeficiency virus particle release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Apr 15; 88(8):3195-9.
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein regions important for association with the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein. J Virol. 1991 Apr; 65(4):2119-23.
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Stable Tat III cell lines, Tat III gene products, and assay methods. 1991.

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Identification of membrane anchorage domains of the HIV-1 gp160 envelope glycoprotein precursor. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1991; 4(1):34-40.
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The NF kappa B independent cis-acting sequences in HIV-1 LTR responsive to T-cell activation. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1991; 4(2):173-7.
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Gene transfer into human lymphocytes by a defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vector. J Virol. 1991 Jan; 65(1):532-6.
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Attenuation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cytopathic effect by a mutation affecting the transmembrane envelope glycoprotein. J Virol. 1991 Jan; 65(1):281-91.
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A rapid method for quantitating the frequency of peripheral blood cells containing HIV-1 DNA. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1991; 4(4):368-73.
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Changes in the transmembrane region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 envelope glycoprotein affect membrane fusion. J Virol. 1990 Dec; 64(12):6314-8.
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Identification of individual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 amino acids important for CD4 receptor binding. J Virol. 1990 Dec; 64(12):5701-7.
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Identification of cis-acting repressive sequences within the negative regulatory element of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 1990 Oct; 64(10):5226-9.
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Human immunodeficiency virus vpr product is a virion-associated regulatory protein. J Virol. 1990 Jun; 64(6):3097-9.
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Rapid complementation assays measuring replicative potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein mutants. J Virol. 1990 May; 64(5):2416-20.
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Protein kinase A-dependent binding of a nuclear factor to the 21-base-pair repeat of the human T-cell leukemia virus type I long terminal repeat. J Virol. 1990 Mar; 64(3):1264-70.
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A tripartite HIV-1 tat-env-rev fusion protein. EMBO J. 1990 Mar; 9(3):965-70.
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Mechanisms of infectivity and replication of HIV-1 and implications for therapy. Ann Emerg Med. 1990 Mar; 19(3):233-41.
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The T open reading frame of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1990; 3(6):601-8.
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Effects on CD4 binding of anti-peptide sera to the fourth and fifth conserved domains of HIV-1 gp120. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1990; 3(3):206-14.
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p21rex protein of HTLV-1. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1990; 3(12):1135-9.
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Constitutive expression of HIV-1 tat protein in human Jurkat T cells using a BK virus vector. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1990; 3(4):372-9.
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Identification of HIV-1 vpr product and function. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1990; 3(1):11-8.
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Effects of long terminal repeat mutations on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication. J Virol. 1989 Sep; 63(9):4115-9.
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Identification of a sequence required for efficient packaging of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA into virions. J Virol. 1989 Sep; 63(9):4085-7.
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Role of capsid precursor processing and myristoylation in morphogenesis and infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Aug; 86(15):5781-5.
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Functional role of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpu. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jul; 86(13):5163-7.
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Transformation to continuous growth of primary human T lymphocytes by human T-cell leukemia virus type I X-region genes transduced by a Herpesvirus saimiri vector. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 May; 86(9):3351-5.
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Antibodies to CD4 in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 May; 86(9):3346-50.
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Synthesis of the 2-chloro analogues of 3'-deoxyadenosine, 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine, and 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine as potential antiviral agents. J Med Chem. 1989 May; 32(5):1135-40.
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Construction and use of a replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) that expresses the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 May; 86(10):3857-61.
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Response of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 long terminal repeat to cyclic AMP. J Virol. 1989 Apr; 63(4):1604-11.
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Glycosylation and processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1989; 2(2):163-9.
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HTLV-I p27rex regulates gag and env protein expression. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1989; 2(5):431-40.
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The potential for homeostatic regulation of the X region proteins of the human T cell leukemia virus type I. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1989; 2(6):588-94.
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Identification of a protein encoded by the vpu gene of HIV-1. Nature. 1988 Aug 11; 334(6182):532-4.
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Subcellular localization of the human immunodeficiency virus trans-acting art gene product. J Virol. 1988 Jul; 62(7):2498-501.
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Intragenic cis-acting art gene-responsive sequences of the human immunodeficiency virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Apr; 85(7):2071-5.
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The art gene product of human immunodeficiency virus is required for replication. J Virol. 1988 Feb; 62(2):655-8.
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A soluble CD4 protein selectively inhibits HIV replication and syncytium formation. Nature. 1988 Jan 07; 331(6151):78-81.
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Cis-acting sequences responsive to the rev gene product of the human immunodeficiency virus. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1988; 1(5):441-52.
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Cell lines that express stably env gene products from three strains of HIV-1. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1988; 1(4):317-23.
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Activation of human immunodeficiency virus by herpesvirus infection: identification of a region within the long terminal repeat that responds to a trans-acting factor encoded by herpes simplex virus 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Nov; 84(21):7408-12.
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Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus syncytium formation and virus replication by castanospermine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Nov; 84(22):8120-4.
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Functional regions of the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Science. 1987 Sep 11; 237(4820):1351-5.
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Multiple sequence elements are required for regulation of human T-cell leukemia virus gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Jul; 84(14):4919-23.
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Expression of the art gene protein of human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III/LAV) in bacteria. J Virol. 1987 Feb; 61(2):633-7.
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Mechanism of leukemogenesis by human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II: role of the lor gene. Cancer Detect Prev. 1987; 10(5-6):411-24.
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Transcription directed by the HIV long terminal repeat in vitro. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1987; 3(1):41-55.
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Herpes simplex virus type-1 can reactivate transcription of latent human immunodeficiency virus. Nature. 1987 Jan 1-7; 325(6099):67-70.
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Effects of mutations within the 3' orf open reading frame region of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III/LAV) on replication and cytopathogenicity. J Virol. 1986 Nov; 60(2):754-60.
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The 3' region of bovine leukemia virus genome encodes a trans-activator protein. EMBO J. 1986 Oct; 5(10):2585-9.
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Role of the HTLV-III/LAV envelope in syncytium formation and cytopathicity. Nature. 1986 Jul 31-Aug 6; 322(6078):470-4.
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Identification of a protein encoded by the trans activator gene tatIII of human T-cell lymphotropic retrovirus type III. J Virol. 1986 Jul; 59(1):181-4.
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Trans-activator gene of HTLV-II induces IL-2 receptor and IL-2 cellular gene expression. Science. 1986 May 16; 232(4752):877-80.
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A second post-transcriptional trans-activator gene required for HTLV-III replication. Nature. 1986 May 22-28; 321(6068):412-7.
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The trans-activator gene of the human T cell lymphotropic virus type III is required for replication. Cell. 1986 Mar 28; 44(6):941-7.
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Replicative and cytopathic potential of HTLV-III/LAV with sor gene deletions. Science. 1986 Mar 28; 231(4745):1549-53.
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Activation of enhancer sequences in type II human T-cell leukemia virus and bovine leukemia virus long terminal repeats by virus-associated trans-acting regulatory factors. J Virol. 1986 Mar; 57(3):738-44.
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Post-transcriptional regulation accounts for the trans-activation of the human T-lymphotropic virus type III. Nature. 1986 Feb 13-19; 319(6054):555-9.
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Construction of recombinant murine retroviruses that express the human T-cell leukemia virus type II and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III trans activator genes. J Virol. 1986 Jan; 57(1):379-84.
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Control of gene expression and the replication and pathogenesis of retroviruses. Important Adv Oncol. 1986; 159-72.
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The lor gene and pathogenesis of HTLV-I, -II, and -III. Cancer Res. 1985 Sep; 45(9 Suppl):4545s-4549s.
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The location of cis-acting regulatory sequences in the human T cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III/LAV) long terminal repeat. Cell. 1985 Jul; 41(3):813-23.
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A transcriptional activator protein encoded by the x-lor region of the human T-cell leukemia virus. Science. 1985 Jun 21; 228(4706):1430-4.
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Major glycoprotein antigens that induce antibodies in AIDS patients are encoded by HTLV-III. Science. 1985 May 31; 228(4703):1091-4.
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Subcellular localization of the product of the long open reading frame of human T-cell leukemia virus type I. Science. 1985 Mar 08; 227(4691):1227-8.
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Structure and function of the genome of HTLV. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1985; 115:177-209.
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Isolation and characterization of a human locus homologous to the transforming gene (v-fes) of feline sarcoma virus. J Biol Chem. 1982 Mar 25; 257(6):2730-3.
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