Phase II Trial of Enzalutamide for Castrate-resistant Prostate Cancer With Correlative Assessment of Androgen Receptor Signaling
Phase: Phase 2
Diagnosis: Prostate Cancer
NCT ID: NCT01942837
(View complete trial on ClinicalTrials.gov)
DFCI Protocol ID: 13-301
This research study is evaluating a drug called enzalutamide in metastatatic castration resistant prostate cancer.Enzalutamide is already FDA approved for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer after treatment with chemotherapy. The purpose of this study is to analyze features of tumor specimens sampled prior to therapy and at disease progression to determine why patients respond or stop responding to treatment with Enzalutamide. Prior chemotherapy is not a requirement of this trial. Enzalutamide is a drug designed to block the effects of male hormones in the body that may be helping prostate cancer to grow. It has already been approved by the FDA (the U.S. Food and Drug Administration) for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer who have received prior chemotherapy. Additionally, this study will analyze features of tumor specimens sampled prior to therapy and at disease progression to determine why patients respond or stop responding to treatment with enzalutamide.
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Beth-Israel Deaconess Medical Center, DF/BWCC at South Shore Hospital
Mary-Ellen Taplin, MD,
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Glenn Bubley, MD,
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Rolf Freter, MD, Ph.D.,
Dana Farber Cancer Institute at South Shore
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute:
Judith Prisby, 617-632-5068,
Beth-Israel Deaconess Medical Center:
Cancer Trials Call Center, 617-667-3060
- Participants must meet the following criteria on screening examination to be eligible
to participate in the study:
- Be a male ≥ 18 years of age.
- Participants must have histologically or cytologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of
the prostate without ≥50% neuroendocrine differentiation or small cell histology.
- Participants must have progressive disease as defined by either:
- Castrate resistant disease as defined by PCWG. Participants must have a rise in
PSA on two successive determinations at least one week apart and PSA levels ≥ 2 ng/ml
(only the screening PSA needs to be ≥ 2 ng/ml) and testosterone levels < 50 ng/dL, OR
- Soft tissue progression defined by RECIST 1.1, OR
- Bone disease progression defined by PCWG2 with two or more new lesions on bone scan.
- CRPC with metastatic disease with at least one site of metastatic disease must be
amenable to needle biopsy. Soft tissue biopsy sites include: lymph node or visceral
metastases. Bone sites include lumbar vertebrae, pelvic bones and long bones.
Excluded sites are thoracic, cervical vertebrae, skull and rib lesions. Biopsy site
will be selected with guidance of interventional radiologist determining best site to
optimize balance of obtaining useful tissue for analysis and minimizing risk.
- Participants without orchiectomy must be maintained on LHRH agonist/antagonist
- Participants may have had any number of previous hormonal therapies (antiandrogens,
steroids, estrogens, finasteride, dutasteride, ketoconazole, abiraterone) provided
these were discontinued ≥ 4 weeks before enrollment.
- Participants may have had up to two previous cytotoxic therapeutic regimens provided
these were discontinued ≥ 4 weeks before enrollment.
- At least a 4 week interval from previous prostate cancer treatment other than LHRH
agonist/antagonist therapy or bisphosphonates to enrollment.
- Participants receiving bisphosphonates therapy can be maintained on this therapy. If
participants have not started bisphosphonates, it is recommended that they start
treatment after the first biopsy.
- ECOG performance status < 2 (Karnofsky >60%, see Appendix A).
- Participants must have normal organ and marrow function as defined below:
- WBC ≥ 3,000/mcL
- ANC ≥ 1,500/mcL
- Platelets ≥ 100,000/mcL
- Hemoglobin ≥ 9 g/dL
- Serum albumin ≥ 3.0 g/dL
- AST, ALT, and total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 x Institutional ULN
- Creatinine ≤ 1.5 Institutional ULN or a calculated creatinine clearance ≥ 50 mL/min
using the Cockcroft Gault equation
- PTT ≤ 60, INR ≤ 1.5 Institutional ULN unless on warfarin therapy (investigator would
need to determine if safe for participant to stop warfarin prior to biopsy)
- Have signed an informed consent document indicating that the subjects understands the
purpose of and procedures required for the study and are willing to participate in
- Be willing/able to adhere to the prohibitions and restrictions specified in this
- Written Authorization for Use and Release of Health and Research Study Information
(US sites only) has been obtained.
- Able to swallow the study drug whole as a tablet.
- Participants who have partners of childbearing potential must be willing to use a
method of birth control with adequate barrier protection as determined to be
acceptable by the principal investigator during the treatment period and for 1 week
after last dose of enzalutamide.
- Participants who exhibit any of the following conditions at screening will not be
eligible for admission into the study.
- Uncontrolled illness including, but not limited to ongoing or active infection,
symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia,
or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study
requirements within 6 months of enrollment.
Clinically significant heart disease as evidenced by:
- Myocardial infarction within 6 months of enrollment.
- Uncontrolled angina within 6 months of enrollment.
- Congestive heart failure NYHA Class III or IV, or a history of congestive heart
failure NYHA Class III or IV in the past, unless a screening ECHO or MUGA within 3
months results in a left ventricular ejection fraction ≥ 45%.
- Clinically significant ventricular arrhythmias.
- History of Mobitz II second degree or third degree heart block without a permanent
pacemaker in place.
- Bradycardia as indicated by a heart rate < 50 beats per minute at screening visit.
- Hypotension as indicated by SBP ≤ 85 on 2 consecutive measurements.
- Uncontrolled hypertension as indicated by SBP > 170 mmHg or DBP > 105 mmHg on 2
consecutive measurements at screening visit.
- Thromboembolism within 6 months of enrollment.
- History of gastrointestinal disorders (medical disorders or extensive surgery) which
may interfere with the absorption of the study drug.
- History of seizure or any condition or concurrent medication that may predispose to
- Individuals with a history of a different malignancy are ineligible except for the
following circumstances: 1) individuals with a history of other malignancies are
eligible if they have been disease-free for at least 5 years and are deemed by the
investigator to be at low risk for recurrence of that malignancy, or 2) individuals
with the following cancers are eligible if diagnosed and treated within the past 5
years: superficial bladder cancer, basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.
- Known brain metastasis. Participants with brain metastasis can only be included if
they were treated > 4 week prior to enrollment with radiation and the effects of
treatment have resolved. Subjects with treated brain metastases must have a
post-treatment brain MRI showing no further progression of prior lesions and no new
metastatic lesions. Subjects will be ineligible if they have any ongoing symptoms
from brain metastases or if there continues to be radiographic evidence of cerebral
- Have known allergies, hypersensitivity, or intolerance to enzalutamide or their
- Surgery or local prostatic intervention within 30 days of the first dose. In
addition, any clinically relevant issues from the surgery must have resolved prior to
- Major surgery or radiation therapy within 4 weeks of enrollment. Radium-223,
strontium-89, or samarium-153 therapy within 4 weeks of enrollment. Radiotherapy,
chemotherapy or immunotherapy within 4 weeks, or single fraction of palliative
radiotherapy within 14 days of administration of enrollment.
- Prior treatment with enzalutamide.
- Current enrollment in an investigational drug or device study or participation in
such a study within 30 days of enrollment.
- Concomitant use of medications that may alter pharmacokinetics of enzalutamide. See
- Any acute toxicities due to prior chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy that have not
resolved to a NCI CTCAE (version 4) grade of ≤ 1. Chemotherapy induced alopecia and
grade 2 peripheral neuropathy are allowed.
- Condition or situation which, in the investigator's opinion, may put the participant
at significant risk, may confound the study results, or may interfere significantly
with participant's participation in the study.
- Individuals not willing to comply with the procedural requirements of this protocol.
- HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy are ineligible because
of the potential for pharmacokinetic interactions with enzalutamide. Appropriate
studies will be undertaken in participants receiving combination antiretroviral
therapy when indicated.